Xem 1-20 trên 27 kết quả Financial exclusion
  • This paper examines how corporate financial structure shapes the impact of a financial crisis on the real sector by way of its effects on flows of funds and on corporate real expenditures. It is one of the first papers to utilize extensive cross-country flow and balance sheet data and also to examine subcomponents of GDP in the wake of banking and currency crises rather than focusing exclusively on aggregate GDP.

    pdf49p truongdoan 10-11-2009 153 50   Download

  • CHAPTER 12 Other Topics in Capital Budgeting Evaluating projects with unequal lives Identifying embedded options Valuing real options in projects Evaluating projects with unequal lives Projects S and L are mutually exclusive, and will be repeated. If k = 10%, which is better?

    pdf21p summerflora 31-10-2010 69 19   Download

  • The book is devoted to a subject which deserves growing attention from policy makers, financial operators and academics. It is the issue of unbanking or underbanking in developed countries. With respect to this, the goal of the authors has been to devote more efforts to understanding the problem of financial exclusion in order to offer to low-moderate-income people new opportunities of accessing financial services (banking, credit and investment services)

    pdf371p transang4 02-10-2012 40 14   Download

  • Standardised, regularly available indicators to explain market developments for microfinance in Europe do not yet exist, or refer to Eastern Europe. Thus, we will focus in this section on the framework conditions for microfinance which are covered by the regularly updated Eurostat indicators for poverty and social inclusion, and by data on micro-enterprises. Specific aspects of the current crisis will be discussed later in this paper.

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  • There is also diversity with regard to final beneficiaries: many providers target people excluded from mainstream financial services (47% of respondents of the latest EMN survey) and women (44%); moreover, ethnic minorities and/or immigrants (41%), young (29%) and disabled people (21%) are amongst the top ranks (see Jayo et al, 2010). Priority outreach to these specific target groups show the high social focus of microfinance in Europe.

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  • The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) works exclusively in Latin America. It has just concluded a study and published a book called So- cial Investment Funds in Latin America: Past Performance and Future Role. It occurred about two years ago that social funds have become overwhelm- ingly popular all over the world. They started out as a way of respond- ing to adjustment and have developed in different ways, doing various things. The IDB decided to look at them to determine what is working and what is not working.

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  • The limited access to finance remains a key constraint on growth across the region, limiting the scope for smaller, less well-established firms to finance investment through the formal banking system. How to improve access and increase the level of financial intermediation remains a key policy challenge.

    pdf9p machuavo 19-01-2013 21 4   Download

  • Compagnia di Sviluppo Imprese Sociali (COSIS) set up by the Foundation Cassa di Risparmio di Roma (Fondazione CR Roma) is a financial company that issues loans to social coopera- tives and other non profit bodies. The projects financed are all aimed at combating social and financial exclusion and creating employment opportunities for low income people and/ or disadvantaged people hired by the social cooperatives. The funding has been provided by the Foundation CR Roma and through the issuance of “social” bonds as well as trough access to European funds.

    pdf0p enterroi 02-02-2013 18 3   Download

  • There are currently 11 state buy-down programs for renewable energy technologies, all of which have been initiated within the past several years. Nearly all of these programs are funded by public benefits funds and administered by the state’s energy office, third-party fund administrator, or individual utilities. All of the buy-down programs fund PV installations, with several states targeting PV exclusively. About half of the programs also support wind technology development. A few programs include solar thermal systems or fuel cells as eligible technologies.

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  • This includes being at risk for all medical and long term care costs. A health center taking on this program must be comfortable assuming significant financial risk as well as be able to assume the significant regulatory requirements for PACE that parallel much larger Medicare Advantage health plans. Despite the risk, PACE is one of the few accepted models for fully integrating health and long term care services for disabled elders and is a very significant resource for communities that have the programs. PACE began as a Medicare waiver program but is now a full Medicare benefit.

    pdf90p ut_hai_can 26-12-2012 20 2   Download

  • The genuine saving indicator marks a step forward by the Bank to move away from simple GDP per capita calculations and introduce some human and environmental considerations into mainstream national accounting. Because of its simple and striking nature it looks set to be a major factor in key Bank documents and policy advice. Perhaps it will even become the figure which represents the combined total of the two sides of the “national balance sheet” outlined in Wolfensohn’s CDF proposal. However, it suffers from flawed data and methodology.

    pdf28p machuavo 19-01-2013 20 2   Download

  • Chapter 6 - The application of project evaluation methods. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Explain the principles used in estimating project cash flows, compare mutually exclusive projects that have different lives, determine when to retire (abandon) or replace assets,...

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  • The Credit Register information used here is based exclusively at the transaction or loan level, not at the level of borrowers. A given borrower may enter into several loans with the same bank or with different banks. As some characteristics of the loans cannot readily be aggregated for a given borrower (collateral, maturity, type of instrument), in order to distinguish their impact it is essential to perform the analysis at the level of each loan.

    pdf74p enterroi 02-02-2013 16 1   Download

  • However, an altruistic basis for donation does not necessarily exclude other approaches: systems based on altruism and systems involving some form of payment are not mutually exclusive. This holds in two circumstances: first, in the absence of reward, where payment may be used to recompense the donor for costs actually incurred in donating (that is, in order to avoid financial losses as a result of donation); and second, in the presence of reward, where some forms of reward (monetary or otherwise) may in fact co-exist with altruistic intent.

    pdf31p quaivatdo 15-11-2012 10 0   Download

  • With the exceptions of EMBASE, Agricola and the Internet, selection of articles from the library databases and the International Journal of Obesity were carried out in dupli- cate by two independent researchers blinded to each other’s selections. The continuously changing nature of the Inter- net impeded a duplicate selection. Because of time con- straints, selection was not carried out in duplicate for Agricola and Embase, which were added after the first search had been conducted.

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  • This book weaves strands of research that date back more than 20 years, to approximately 1990–1991. Although I worked at a futures commission merchant (that is, a brokerage firm) while in graduate school, that work involved financial futures exclusively. Deciding to leave that business in mid-October 1987 (thereby causing the 1987 crash), first for a stint in litigation support consulting and then on to academia at the Michigan Business School, I worked on research completely unrelated to futures markets.

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  • Our work is almost exclusively with banks and financial services companies in local markets, in western states markets, nationally and even abroad. We see what works, where it works, and why it works in one market, and maybe not in others. When we find anything new that has the potential to work better than our baseline programs, we incorporate the technique into our toolkit of tactics and menu of options for participants. We do not represent any particular sales system and are not bound to represent any particular sales management company. Rather than being tied...

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  • It aims at providing assistance in compiling the specifications for your digital projection equipment. It exclusively focuses on technical questions and does not address the economic, financial and political dimensions of digital cinema. Although it does not claim to be complete, this guide intends to be as complete as possible to assist you with planning your installation. The latter has to meet in France the AFNOR NF S27-100 standard (“Salle de projection électronique de type cinéma numérique” [“Electronic projection room of the type digital cinema”]), ...

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  • Investment banks have strong capital adequacy, in particular with respect to their hedge credit fund exposures – some estimates of which are provided below. Ironically, the fastest growing area of new financial products that utilise highly-complex derivative products exclusively lies mostly within the regulated sector. This is the market for “structured products” that are produced by investment banks and sold to retail, private bank and institutional clients.

    pdf20p quaivatdo 18-11-2012 17 4   Download

  • Although FHLBanks can use published securities ratings to help make investment decisions, they should also consider other sources of financial information. Exclusive reliance on ratings can be an unsafe and unsound banking practice because credit ratings may lag actual changes in credit quality. There have been a number of instances where companies maintained investment grade ratings until just before they defaulted. To manage investment risks prudently, FHLBanks should supplement external ratings with internal credit analysis.

    pdf261p bocapchetnguoi 05-12-2012 15 3   Download

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