Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Financial incentives to improve adherence to anti-psychotic maintenance medication in non-adherent patients - a cluster randomised controlled trial (FIAT)
Under the Army’s financial management system for spare parts, logistics customers receive budgets to buy spare parts from the supply system and receive credits for returning parts to the supply system, either for repair or because they are no longer needed in local inventories. The Army’s wholesale inventories of spare parts are financed by a stock fund, which u
As we have witnessed during this crisis, financial stress can spread easily and quickly
across national boundaries. Yet, regulation is still set largely in a national context.
Without consistent supervision and regulation, financial institutions will tend to move
their activities to jurisdictions with looser standards, creating a race to the bottom and
intensifying systemic risk for the entire global financial system.
The possibility of financial incentives has also been raised as a potential way of increasing
levels of deceased organ donation: for example by the NHS offering to meet funeral expenses
for those who sign up in advance to the Organ Donor Register (ODR) and subsequently
become organ donors.
This paper analyzes the role of the financial system for economic growth and stability, and addresses a number of core policy issues for financial sector reforms in emerging economies. The role of finance is studied in the context of a circuit model with interacting rational, forward- looking, and heterogeneous agents. Finance is shown to essentially complement the price system in coordinating decentralized intertemporal resource allocation choices from agents operating under limited information and incomplete trust.
The effect of Internal Audit Outsourcing on Financial Statement Users'Confidence in Their Protection From Fraudulent Financial Reporting Many analysts have identified principal-agent problems as a major source of
underperformance in public education. Public school administrators need not compete for
customers and are therefore free of the market discipline that aligns producer incentives with
consumer demand in private markets.
The main findings of our initial research with regard to the structure of the European microfinance
market are still valid. We are not going to repeat the analysis here but refer the interested reader
to the details of the original paper (see Kraemer-Eis and Conforti, 2009). We can summarise our
findings at the time in the following way:
SMEs constitute the backbone of entrepreneurship in the EU, irrespective of national
boundaries. The majority of these companies are micro-enterprises; in the EU-27, 92% of
the companies have fewer than 10 employees.
The North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University, in collaboration with the National
Renewable Energy Laboratory, examined 10 state financial-incentive programs in six states
using a case-study approach in order to clarify the key factors—both internal and external to
the program—that influence their effectiveness at stimulating deployment of renewable
energy technologies. While existing information resources such as the National Database of
State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE, www.dsireusa.
Yet – outside the major pension funds and insurance companies – institutional investor allocations to clean
energy projects remain limited, particularly when it comes to the types of direct investment which can help
close the financing gap. Reasons for institutional investor hesitancy include a lack of information and
expertise when it comes to the type of direct infrastructure investment required to finance clean energy
projects, and a potentially unsupportive regulatory backdrop.
He reports that seniors rely on interpersonal sources together with internally-
produced print materials for their information needs regarding participation in community clubs and
organizations. Seniors sought printed resources for hobby-related information seeking. For answers to
medical and financial questions, they tended to look primarily to interpersonal sources. Interpersonal
sources include physicians and pharmacists, other professionals, family members and friends.
Financial incentives are an important tool that can help individuals and businesses overcome
the barrier of high initial equipment costs for these technologies. But, to be effective, these
incentives should be considered as one component in a comprehensive approach to creating a
In the wake of the 20-year anniversary of Earth Day in 1990 and the Gulf War shortly
thereafter, environmental issues and renewable energy enjoyed renewed interest. Several
states enacted new tax credits and began new loan and grant programs. In the late 1990s,
states continued to take the lead in developing programs, policies, and incentives to promote
the use of renewable energy, in part as a result of electric utility restructuring.
The high ownership concentration can also serve
as a credible commitment that the controlling owner is willing to build a reputation for
not expropriating minority shareholders (Gomes, 2000). The commitment is credible
because minority shareholders know that if the controlling owner unexpectedly extracts
high levels of private benefits when he/she still holds a substantial amount of shares, they
will discount the stock price accordingly, and the majority owner’s share value will be
In a competitive world of symmetric information
and costless enforcement, credit contracts
could be written conditional on borrower behavior.
Borrowers would then have access
to loans under any interest rate-collateral
combination that would yield lenders a zero
expected profit. However, as a large literature
has shown, information asymmetries
and enforcement costs make such conditional
contracting infeasible and restrict the set of
available contracts, eliminating as incentive incompatible
high interest rate, low collateral
While existing information resources such as the National Database of State Incentives for
Renewable Energy (DSIRE, www.dsireusa.org) have documented available incentive
programs, the effectiveness of such programs is not well understood. Understanding the
impact of current financial incentives on the deployment of renewables—and the factors that
influence their effectiveness—is critical to a variety of stakeholders, particularly for states
considering new incentives or interested in improving or discarding existing ones.
A production tax credit (PTC) is an example of such a performance-based incentive that
provides the investor or owner of an eligible renewable energy system with an annual tax
credit based on the amount of electricity generated by the system. By linking the incentive to
energy produced rather than capital invested, this type of incentive encourages and rewards
projects based on performance.
Our supervisory framework was not equipped to handle a crisis of this magnitude. To be
sure, most of the largest, most interconnected, and most highly leveraged financial firms
in the country were subject to some form of supervision and regulation by a federal
government agency. But those forms of supervision and regulation proved inadequate
First, capital and liquidity requirements were simply too low.
Chapter 7 - The role of financial information in contracting. In this chapter you will learn: What conflicts of interest arise between managers and shareholders, lenders, or regulators; how and why accounting numbers are used in debt agreements, in compensation contracts, and for regulatory purposes; how managerial incentives are influenced by accounting-based contracts and regulations;...