The FDIC is committed to expanding economic inclusi
in the financial mainstream by ensuring that all Ameri-
cans have access to safe, secure, and affordable banking
services. As part of this effort, the FDIC is working to fi
the research and data gap regarding household participa
tion in mainstream banking and the use of non-bank
financial services. Every two years, the FDIC conducts t
National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked House
holds (household survey).
Consequently, the first section of this paper will focus on the concept of
conflict and conflict cycles. After presenting a working definition of
conflict, a theoretical model of the conflict lifecycle will be provided.
This section also presents an extended model of the conflict lifecycle
which includes both the conflict intensity level and measures to prevent,
limit and resolve the conflict.
Oracle Big Data Appliance brings Big Data solutions to mainstream enterprises. Built using
industry-standard hardware from Sun and Cloudera’s distribution including Apache Hadoop, the
Big Data Appliance is designed and optimized for big data workloads. By integrating the key
components of a big data platform into a single product, Oracle Big Data Appliance delivers an
affordable, scalable and fully supported big data infrastructure without the risks of a custom built
Another salient emotion in moving experiences is the feeling of inspi-
ration. The word “inspired” means, in its etymological sense, to be filled
with breath, spirit, and life. Thus, the emotion of learning at its most
powerful is the feeling of increased vitality as we realize our growing
capacity to perceive and act. This particular quality of experience is
addressed indirectly, at best, in mainstream psychological traditions. For
example, the motivation construct of goals...
The genuine saving indicator marks a step forward by the Bank to move away from simple GDP
per capita calculations and introduce some human and environmental considerations into
mainstream national accounting. Because of its simple and striking nature it looks set to be a
major factor in key Bank documents and policy advice. Perhaps it will even become the figure
which represents the combined total of the two sides of the “national balance sheet” outlined in
Wolfensohn’s CDF proposal.
However, it suffers from flawed data and methodology.
It should be noted, however, that it is difficult, if not impossible,
given available data, to identify mainstream capital market participation
by diasporas. Investments made by diaspora members in conventional
investment vehicles open to all investors are indistinguishable from other
foreign investments. But governments and businesses in some countries
of origin have created financial instruments especially designed to tap into
the wealth of diaspora populations. While some are aimed at high-net-
worth individuals, some are accessible to small-scale savers.
“However, the Rockefeller Foundation argues that these traditional approaches to
communication are generally insufficient in addressing the reality of the development
problems that exist, as they do not always reflect the complex changes in the
communications environments taking place in many developing country societies:
“Communication can play a much greater role in enabling people to take control over
their own lives, in enabling people and societies to set their own agendas in relation
to political, economic and social development; and in enabling, in particular, the
voices of the ...
.BEFORE WE BEGIN
It is hard to believe another year has come and gone. So many interesting trends have emerged this year, and many more are likely poised to do so next year.
At Luckie & Company, we spend a lot of time observing and studying trends that impact consumers’ lives. The following is a list of 10 trends we feel have potential to continue growing, maybe even enter the mainstream and start to play an emerging role in daily life in 2010. If nothing else, they’re pretty cool and worth keeping an eye on. For hipsters, trendsetters and early adopters, some...
The consolidated results from several questionnaires5
indicated that 6 of the 27 developed countries had fullyimplemented
IWRM plans in effect, with another 10 having
such plans in place or partially implemented. Only 38% of
the 77 developing countries had completed plans (33% of
the Asian countries; 38% of the African countries; 43% of the
countries in the Americas) while the implementation level
varied greatly. Vital information on the efficiency of water
use was often ambiguous or lacking.
objective or subjective, when making decisions under uncertainty. This is especially true
when the consequences of the decisions can have a significant impact, financial or
otherwise. Most of us make everyday personal decisions this way, using an intuitive process
based on our experience and subjective judgments.
Mainstream statistical analysis, however, seeks objectivity by generally restricting the
information used in an analysis to that obtained from a current set of clearly relevant data.
There is also diversity with regard to final beneficiaries: many providers target people excluded
from mainstream financial services (47% of respondents of the latest EMN survey) and women
(44%); moreover, ethnic minorities and/or immigrants (41%), young (29%) and disabled people
(21%) are amongst the top ranks (see Jayo et al, 2010).
Priority outreach to these specific target groups show the high social focus of microfinance in
Microfinance institutions have been affected by the adverse macro-economic conditions during
the global financial and economic crisis, generally through significantly higher bad debt rates
among their clients and in some cases through increased difficulties in accessing external sources
Real estate investment is about creating and adding value through the effective
management of property assets. Real estate is fundamentally no different from other mainstream
investments: the analysis of property investments can be easily integrated into the capital market
framework. Capital asset pricing theory evolved into the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).
The CAPM model, described by Franfurter (1995: 104) as the ‘keystone’ of financial theory,
has been tested in financial securites (stock exchange) markets over three decades.
Among technological options experimented to reach the unbanked and underbanked populations
mostly in the rural areas are the satellite (mobile) branches, which allow to serve financially-excluded
geographical areas where mainstream banks found it unprofitable to set up brick and mortar infra-
structures. Savings banks in Uganda and Zimbabwe operate mobile banking units, which consist of
vans equipped with information and communication technology touring remote communities on fixed
dates to render banking services.
Small-scale producers seek to meet the financial needs of their
households and businesses while simultaneously addressing the
demands from the marketplace. Many small-scale poultry producers
have been successful at direct marketing. Many have sought to grow
their businesses to fill a larger market niche by offering their chickens
to restaurants or retail stores. Most find that they are excluded from
mainstream poultry processing facilities, distributors and marketing
operations because they tend to be controlled by large-scale, industrial
Access to microfinance services can end the marginalization of the poor and include them in mainstream society,
encourage responsibility and promote economic activity. Moreover, access to financial services has a particularly
strong catalytic effect when these services are targeted toward women. Thanks to their own efforts and the availability
of financial services geared to their needs, it is estimated that by 2007, 100 million of the world’s poorest families
were able to improve their lives.