Fiscal institutions

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  • When States Go Broke collects insights and analyses from leading academics and practitioners who discuss the ongoing fiscal crisis among the American states. No one disagrees with the idea that the states face enormous political and fiscal challenges. There is, however, little consensus on how to fix the perennial problems associated with these challenges. This volume fills an important gap in the dialogue by offering an academic analysis of the many issues broached by these debates.

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  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (or NHLBI) is a division of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland, USA. It is tasked with allocating about $2.7 billion in tax revenue per year (fiscal year 2004 estimate) to advancing the understanding of the following issues: development and progression of disease, diagnosis of disease, treatment of disease, disease prevention, reduction of health care disparities within the American population, and advancing the effectiveness of the U.S. medical system. NHLBI's current Director is Gary H. Gibbons, M.D....

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  • MOST PROGRAM MANAGERS, principal investigators, division leaders, and department chairs are bright, capable, and competent persons in their field of expertise. However, when appointments are made to administrative posts in higher education, new academic managers often come to their positions without much experience in fiscal management and administration. Prior to their appointment, the personal interactions of new academic managers with the fiscal management of the institution have primarily related to individual issues regarding salaries, benefits, and grants....

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  • Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective The New Fiscal Sociology: Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective demon- strates that the study of taxation can illuminate fundamental dynamics of modern societies. The fourteen chapters in this collection offer a state-of-the-art survey of the new fiscal sociology that is emerging at the intersection of sociology, history, political science, and law. The contributors include some of the foremost comparative historical scholars in these disciplines and others.

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  • Levine explains what the financial system does and how it affects, and is affected by, economic growth. Theory suggests that financial instruments, markets, and institutions arise to mitigate the effects of information and transaction costs. A growing literature shows that differences in how well financial systems reduce information and transaction costs influence savings rates, investment decisions, technological innovation, and long-run growth rates. A less developed theoretical literature shows how changes in economic activity can influence financial systems.

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  • Europe's strength lies in the interconnection of our economies. The single market and the common currency have driven this forward, and the integrated economic policy making at the European level through the European semester is now drawing our economies together as never before. However, the crisis has shown that the single market for financial services can only deliver financial stability, economic growth and jobs if it is matched with a strong single regulatory and supervisory authority at EU level.

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  • Interest rate risk remains high for banks because of a duration mis- match between deposits relative to banks’ holdings of government securities and certain housing loans. Exchange rate risk is less of a concern as banks have only a small net foreign exchange position and hedges are generally considered to be with strong institutions. In addition, large Turkish corporates have high foreign-exchange (FX) liabilities, often to foreign lenders, more willing to provide financing as markets stabilised after the crisis in 2001.

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  • Many of the differences we see in Russian and Chinese fiscal institutions today can be attributed to differences in the initial command economies of the Soviet Union and China. On the eve of economic reform, the Soviet Union and China shared many common features of the command economy, including state ownership of industry, collectivized agriculture, the centralized coordination of economic activities by an administrative hierarchy taking its direction from a Communist Party, an absence of true market prices, and the lack of legal alternatives to administrative plans.

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  • As f iscal agents of the United States, the Reserve Banks function as the U.S. government’s bank and perform a variety of services for the Treasury, other government agencies, government-sponsored enterprises, and some international organizations. Often the f iscal agent services performed by the Reserve Banks are the same, or similar to, services that the Reserve Banks provide to the banking system. Services performed for the Trea- sury include maintaining the Treasury’s bank account; processing pay- ments; and issuing, safekeeping, and transferring securities.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'financial aid awarded, fiscal year 1999: grants, loans, and student earnings from institution jobs', tài chính - ngân hàng, tài chính doanh nghiệp phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Before we approach the details of relational data architecture, it helps to establish a base understanding of relational concepts. If you are an experienced database pro- grammer, you will probably want to move on to the next section on normalization. In this section, we will review the key concepts behind relational databases critical to an in-depth understanding of relational data architecture. Databases and Database Engines Developers new to database programming often run into problems understanding just what a database is.

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  • Fiscal records pertain to the financial transactions of the agency, such as budgets, ledgers, allotments, payrolls and vouchers. After some records have served a basic administrative function, they may still have sufficient fiscal value to justify additional retention to protect the agency against court action and/or audits. Some records will also have enduring value because they reflect significant historical events or document the history and development of an agency. Others contain accumulated data that can be useful for both scientific and genealogical research.

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  • In 1995, the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council issued a report entitled Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, which recommended tracking federal investments in the creation of new knowledge and technologies—what the report referred to as the federal science and technology budget (FS&T).

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  • Assuring quality. Accreditation is the primary means by which colleges, universities and programs assure quality to students and the public. Accredited status is a signal to students and the public that an institution or program meets at least threshold standards for its faculty, curriculum, student services and libraries. Accredited status is conveyed only if institutions and programs provide evidence of fiscal stability.

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  • In a January 2000 speech at the California Institute of Technology, former PresidentW. J. Clinton talked about the exciting promise of “nanotechnology” and the importance of expanding research in nanoscale science and engineering and in the physical sciences, more broadly. Later that month, he announced in his State of the Union Address an ambitious $ 497 million federal, multi-agency national nanotechnology initiative (NNI) in the fiscal year 2001 budget; and he made the NNI a top science and technology priority within a budget that emphasized increased investment in U.S.

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  • This is the fourth edition of Professor Lindauer's early ground-breaking Macroeconomics series. It holds reader interest because it constantly relates the concepts of modern macroeconomics to today's "Great Recession" and the policies and conditions that brought it about and are needed to end it. In so doing it explains why not all Keynesian and neo-classical theory and monetary and fiscal policies are applicable to the unique structure and institutions of the United States and how the current recession can be quickly ended -...

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  • A second source for private sector expenditure on R&D is the “EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard”, which has been conducted by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) that is part of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The annual Scoreboard presents information on the world’s top 1400 companies ranked by their investments in R&D. It contains data drawn from companies’ accounts, most recently for the fiscal year 2009. 16 R&D indicators, such as R&D intensity, vary in line with the business cycle.

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  • The Federal Reserve plays an important role in the U.S. payments system. The twelve Federal Reserve Banks provide banking services to depository institutions and to the federal government. For depository institutions, they maintain accounts and provide various payment services, including collecting checks, electronically transferring funds, and distributing and receiving currency and coin. For the federal government, the Reserve Banks act as fiscal agents, paying Treasury checks; processing electronic payments; and issuing, transferring, and redeeming U.S.

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  • The different views presented in the previous section suggest different aspects of how the SGP could affect capital market expectations about future developments, and hence prices for fixed government securities. If a strict interpretation of the SGP reduces budgetary flexibility and short-term growth prospects, it might lead to lower short or medium term interest rates. Conversely, if the central bank considers any breach or lax implementation of the Pact as an indication of an unduly expansionary fiscal policy leading to higher inflation, it could foreclose a monetary easing.

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  • A genuine EMU needs a comprehensive approach to tackle the vicious circle of excessive private sector indebtedness, unsustainable sovereign debt and banking sector weakness. The EU lacks a global framework which fills in the gaps in a fully integrated financial services policy, with a single supervisory mechanism for banks and a single rule book to govern all financial institutions. It also needs to complete and implement the more effective mechanisms put forward to prevent and correct unsustainable fiscal policies and economic imbalances.

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