fixed and variable general production costs incurred in the process of turning raw materials and materials into finished products.
Fixed general production costs means indirect production costs, which are often invariable regardless of the volume of manufactured products, such as depreciation cost, maintenance cost of machinery, equipment, workshops… and administrative management cost at production workshops.
The storage of tissue-engineered products is an attractive target for technological
development. Since tissue-engineered products usually consist of living cells, technical
issues include the limited shelf life of the cells and the use of specialized conditions for
transportation. Without storage, treatment with cells requires timely harvesting from the
donor, which significantly affects the availability of tissue-engineered products.
The price premium charged for competitive-market products depends on several factors
including the price of standard offer or default service, the availability of incentives to green
power marketers or suppliers, and the cost of renewable energy generation available in the
regional market. Some marketers have charged prices close to or even below the default market
price in recent years (e.g., in Texas); others have offered fixed-price products, providing
customers with protection against increasing prices for a specified period of time, usually one
The insured event must be specified, i.e. the event cannot be a general protection
against adverse deviations from targets, but must be explicitly or implicitly
described in the contract. Where the contract provides an option to extend cover,
this will only qualify as insurance risk at the start of the contract if the contract
specifies the terms of the extended cover. The probability that the option will be
exercised is taken into consideration when assessing the significance of the future
China’s fiscal system has gone through three basic phases. Before 1979, the
central government had a formal monopoly over both revenues and expenditures.
Between 1979 and 1993, under the economic reforms championed by Deng Xiaoping and
his supporters, this fiscal system changed to a fiscal contract system, but there were at
least six different types of contracts between provinces and the center, and little
consistency between provinces or over time.
CIS provides benchmarks, scoring tools, software, data, information, suggestions, ideas, and other services and materials from the CIS
website or elsewhere (“Products”) as a public service to Internet users worldwide. Recommendations contained in the Products
(“Recommendations”) result from a consensus-building process that involves many security experts and are generally generic in
nature. The Recommendations are intended to provide helpful information to organizations attempting to evaluate or improve the
security of their networks, systems and devices.
The emergence of fixed cinemas coincided which a huge
growth phase in the business in general; film production increased
greatly, and film distribution developed into a special activity, often
managed by large film producers. However, until about 1914, besides the
cinemas, films also continued to be combined with live entertainment in
vaudeville and other theatres (Musser 1990; Allen 1980).
We can thus place the take-off of the cinema industry between
1905 and 1907. In these years it developed its own retail outlets and did
not depend exclusively on theatres and travelling showmen.
Typically, green pricing programs are structured so that customers can either purchase green
power for a certain percentage of their electricity use (often called “percent-of-use products”) or
in discrete amounts or blocks at a fixed price (“block products”), such as a 100 kWh block. Most
utilities offer block products but may also allow customers to buy green power for their entire
monthly electricity use.
In the next Section II we will describe the nature of the general purpose technol-
ogy represented by cloud computing, its genesis and its likely impact on the econo-
my and on the structure of many markets. As we will see, the introduction of cloud
computing is going to reduce drastically the fixed costs of entry and production,
turning part of them into variable costs related to the production necessities. This
will have a positive impact on entry and competition in all sectors where fixed ICT
spending is crucial.
A main aspect of our empirical exercise concerns the nature of the shock affect-
ing the economy. The introduction of cloud computing allows firms from all sectors
to reduce fixed costs in ICT and turn part of them into variable costs. In our analy-
sis we focus on the reduction in the fixed cost associated with the introduction of
Carbon dioxide is produced in several anthropogenic activities at a rate of ca.
35 Gt/y. The main sources are: (1) the combustion of fossil carbon (production of
electric energy, transport, heating, industry), (2) the utilization of biomass (combustion
to obtain energy, fermentation), and (3) the decomposition of natural
carbonates (mainly in the steel and cement industry).