Whatever the debate about its nature and causes, almost all observers would agree that
inner-city poverty is multidimensional, extraordinarily complex, and difficult to under-
stand. Various disciplines and policy frameworks give rise to very different notions of
poverty and of its sources. To economists, it is an issue of labor markets, productivity,
incentives, human capital, and choice. Sociologists and anthropologists tend to emphasize
social status and relations, behavior, and culture. For social psychologists, the issues may
include self-image, group membership, and attitudes.