Flocking of birds

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  • Swarm Intelligence is a research field that studies the emergent collective intelligence of self-organized and decentralized simple agents. It is based on the social behavior that can be observed in nature, such as in flocks of birds, fish schools and bee hives, where a group of individuals with limited capabilities are able to emerge with intelligent solutions for complex problems.

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  • Many species undertake long distance annual migrations, and many more perform shorter irregular movements. Birds are social; they communicate using visual signals and through calls and songs, and participate in social behaviours, including cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have polygynous ("many females") or, rarely, polyandrous ("many males") breeding systems.

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  • In the last few years, the search for radically new approaches to software engineering has witnessed a great momentum. These efforts are well justified by the troubling state of present day computer science. Software engineering practices based on design-time architectural composition (the only assessed way of doing software engineering so far), lead to brittle and fragile systems, unable to gracefully cope with reconfiguration and faults.

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  • A flock of bird - Một đàn chim Nếu như có một danh từ tập hợp cho một nhóm sinh viên đó sẽ là từ nào? Đó là một câu hỏi vui. Danh từ tập hợp (collective nouns) thường được dùng để chỉ các nhóm, mà ta vẫn hay gọi trong tiếng Việt là "đàn".

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  • In the search for a new framework, we have come to believe strongly in emerging management principles based on the “new science” of complexity that exploit an understanding of autonomous human behavior gained from the study of living systems in nature. Specifically, we have begun to build the notion of complex adaptive systems (CAS) into our management assumptions and practices. Complexity scientists have studied the collective behavior of living systems in nature such as the flocking of birds, schooling of fish, marching of ants and the swarming of bees.

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  • These results have been used to unravel the mysteries of the collective behavior of living systems in nature such as the flocking of birds, schooling of fish, marching of ants and swarming of bees for strategic purposes. While the individual “agents” in these groups possess only local strategic rules and capacity, their collective behavior is characterized by an overlaying order, self-organization, and a collective intelligence that is greater than the sum of the parts.

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  • Family poultry is defined as small-scale poultry keeping by households using family labour and, wherever possible, locally available feed resources. The poultry may range freely in the household compound and find much of their own food, getting supplementary amounts from the householder. Participants at a 1989 workshop in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, defined rural poultry as a flock of less than 100 birds, of unimproved or improved breed, raised in either extensive or intensive farming systems. Labour is not salaried, but drawn from the family household (Sonaiya 1990b).

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  • The poultry farm is a project of livestock sector, in which, the day old chicks (DOCs) are raised on high protein feed for a period of six weeks. Broiler meat is the cheapest source of animal protein available in the country. The time required for rearing broiler birds is lesser than that for large animals. The consumption of white meat is increasing due to growing health consciousness in the masses. Broiler farming is a profitable venture due to continuous increasing demand of the meat in the market. Annually, seven flocks of birds will be reared on the same premises of...

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  • Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population based stochastic optimization technique influenced by the social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling.PSO shares many similarities with evolutionary computation techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA). The system is initialized with a population of random solutions and searches for optima by updating generations.

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  • Two allelic isoforms (H1.a1 and H1.a2) of histone H1.a were identified within two conservative flocks (R11 and R55) of Rhode Island Red chick-ens. These proteins form three phenotypes: a1, a2 and a1a2. Birds with phenotype a1 were most common (frequency 0.825–0.980) while the a1a2 chickens appeared relatively rarely (0.017–0.175).

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  • Birds are housed in large structures with floor areas ranging from 12,000 square feet to more than 20,000 square feet. Buildings have automated feeders and either bell-type, nipple, or cup watering systems. Broilers and turkeys are raised on deep litter (wood shavings) in open-floor environments where birds can move freely throughout the house. A production cycle for broilers generally lasts six weeks, after which birds are removed to market.

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  • Broiler-breeder hens are first housed in open-floor environments or pens where they are reared to 20 to 22 weeks of age. The arrangement and management of these houses are similar to that described for broilers. Roosters are similarly housed until breeding age. The breeding flock (hens and roosters) is then transferred to production houses where hens begin to lay fertile eggs at about 24 weeks of age. The birds are held in production for an additional 36 to 44 weeks, at which time they are sold to the market.

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  • Pesticide exposure to residues on surfaces, eggs and birds are minimal, representing little risk to workers. Once treated, birds are seldom handled by workers until removed from the houses at the end of a production cycle. Frequency of application also plays a role in reducing secondary exposure following premise treatments. Poultry houses are often treated just prior to the introduction of a new flock. In the case of broilers and young turkeys, premise treatments will occur at a minimum of every 7 to 8 weeks.

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  • Family poultry is rarely the sole means of livelihood for the family but is one of a number of integrated and complementary farming activities contributing to the overall well-being of the household. Poultry provide a major income-generating activity from the sale of birds and eggs. Occasional consumption provides a valuable source of protein in the diet. Poultry also play an important socio-cultural role in many societies. Poultry keeping uses family labour, and women (who often own as well as look after the family flock) are major beneficiaries.

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  • Much of the blame for the spread of the virus across the world has been placed on wild birds. Because poultry on free range and backyard farms could potentially come into contact with wild birds or their droppings, these farming types are an obvious target for blame. Many countries have periodically ordered their free range flocks indoors - among them France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Slovenia, and parts of Canada and Norway.

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  • Commercial poultry production is predominantly a vertically integrated system in North Carolina. Production companies (integrators) contract with growers to produce birds or eggs. In general, the integrator supplies birds and feed, and often supplies supplemental materials such as medications, pesticides, etc. The integrator is also responsible for hatchery management, transport, slaughter, and marketing. The grower builds and maintains the houses, installs and maintains equipment, handles daily flock management, and disposes of dead birds and waste....

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  • Available as a dust, wettable powder, and emulsifiable concentrate, permethrin is used on more than 10 percent of the birds (layers, breeders, pullets) treated for ectoparasites. Treatment is most often applied to birds at a rate of 1 gallon of spray (0.004 pound of active ingredient) spray per 100 birds. Premise application at the same concentration is made at a rate of 1 to 2 gallons spray per 1,000 square feet of surface area. Dust formulations (0.25 percent) are applied to birds (dust boxes) and premises (litter) at a rate of 1 pound (0.003 pound of active ingredient) per 100...

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  • A man is know by the company he keeps -Xem bạn biết nết người A man must eat a peck of salt with his friend before he know him -Trong gian nan mới biết ai là bạn Birds of a feather flock together

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  • FLOCK HEALTH A good biosecurity program is important for rearing turkeys or any other livestock. Biosecurity is an attitude, program, or management process that provides your birds with a rearing environment that is safe from all hazards and especially those related to disease. Biosecurity is important for all poultry flocks regardless of flock size.

    pdf29p trasua1 21-09-2010 38 4   Download

  • Layer pullets are first placed in cages or open-floor environments for six to eight weeks. Floor-reared birds are transferred to rearing cages until ready for production. All layer pullets are then reared in cages until they are 18 to 20 weeks of age, after which they are transferred to production housing. Laying flocks are held in production until about 75 weeks of age. Commercial layers are confined to cages (three to four birds per cage) within buildings. Rows of cages are most often tiered three to four cages high, each tier slightly offset from the one below to prevent droppings...

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