Chapter 6 - Variable costing and segment reporting: tools for management. After studying chapter 6, you should be able to: Explain how variable costing differs from absorption costing and compute unit product costs under each method, prepare income statements using both variable and absorption costing, reconcile variable costing and absorption costing net operating incomes and explain why the two amounts differ, prepare a segmented income statement that differentiates traceable fixed costs from common fixed costs and use it to make decisions.
This chapter presents the following content: The state variables of a dynamic system, the state differential equation, signal – flow graph & block diagram models, alternative signal – flow graph & block diagram models, the transfer function from the state equation,...
Average depth model has a variety of applications in hydraulic engineering,
especially in applications that flow depth is much smaller than the width of the flow.
In this method the vertical variation is negligible and the hydraulic variables
average integrated from channel bed to the surface free for the vertical axis. in
equations arising management, pure hydrostatic pressure is assumed that
not really valid in the case of flow in the bed is curved and can not be described
curvature effects of the bed.
Climate dynamicists generally characterize the Hadley circulation in
terms of some derived meteorological parameters, such as the mass stream
function (the nondivergent part of the flow) or the velocity potential (the
divergent circulation), both of which are based on measurements of the
three-dimensional wind field. Yet, we know very little about how such indices
have varied in the past—beyond the most recent decades.
This title presents the general principles of instrumentation processes. It explains the theoretical analysis of physical phenomena used by standard sensors and transducers to transform a physical value into an electrical signal. The pre-processing of these signals through electronic circuits – amplification, signal filtering and analog-to-digital conversion – is then detailed, in order to provide useful basic information.
Attention is then given to general complex systems.
Results obtained from fixed effect and ordinary least squares are indifferent. However, results
based on fixed effect model yield more insightful interpretation. The outcomes from fixed effect model
help indicating that three determinants affecting mutual fund growth are types of AMCs,
Administrative expense ratio, and size of AMCs. Types of AMCs or dummy variables are used to
represent distribution channel and parent reputation.
Instruments used to predict future mutual fund returns include the aggregate dividend
yield, the default spread, the term spread, and the yield on the three-month T-bill, variables
identiﬁed by Keim and Stambaugh (1986) and Fama and French (1989) as important in
predicting U.S. equity returns. The dividend yield is the total cash dividends on the value-
weighted CRSP index over the previous 12 months divided by the current level of the
index. The default spread is the yield differential between Moodys BAA-rated and AAA-
The goal of this book is to expose the reader to modern computational tools for
solving differential equation models that arise in chemical engineering, e.g.,
diffusion-reaction, mass-heat transfer, and fluid flow. The emphasis is placed
on the understanding and proper use of software packages. In each chapter we
outline numerical techniques that either illustrate a computational property of
interest or are the underlying methods of a computer package. At the close of
each chapter a survey of computer packages is accompanied by examples of
A simple model of earnings, cash flows and accruals is developed by assuming a random walk sales process, variable and fixed costs, accounts receivable and payable, and inventory and applying the accounting process. The model implies earnings better predicts future operating cash flows than does current operating cash flows and the difference varies with the operating cash cycle. Also, the model is used to predict serial and crosscorrelations of each firm's series. The implications and predictions are tested on a 1337 firm sample over 1963-1992.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Variable Viscosity on Magnetohydrodynamic Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Surface with Hall Effect
There have been some attempts to explain theoretically the behavior of the stock return volatility.
Veronesi (1999) constructs a model with regime shifts in the endowments in which investors will-
ingness to hedge against their own uncertainty on the true regime generates overreaction to good
news in bad times and volatility clustering. In contrast to that paper, I assume that the exogenous
state variables are not subject to regimes, neither do they exhibit mean-reversion.
A higher-risk CMO tranche could, for example, have an average life that changes from 2 years to
20 years with even a modest increase in interest rates. Higher risk refers here to the cash flow
variability of the tranche, not its credit quality, although underwriters can create structured
securities that combine higher average life sensitivity with lower credit quality.
The highest yields go to those tranches that, by design, exhibit the most volatile average lives.
Such tranches receive excess principal cash when prepayments rise, and pay off early.
Chapter 6 - Variable interest entities, intra-entity debt, consolidated cash flows, and other issues. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Describe a variable interest entity, a primary beneficiary, and the factors used to decide when a variable interest entity is subject to consolidation; understand the consolidation procedures to eliminate all intra-entity debt accounts and recognize any associated gain or loss created whenever one company acquires an affiliate’s debt instrument from an outside party;...
In addition to emphasizing long-horizon expected returns, the approach taken here differs
from previous treatments in that it uses ex ante estimates of expected returns, rather than ex post
actual returns. Expected returns are estimated by incorporating corporate cash flow projections
into an expanded version of the Campbell and Shiller (1988, 1989) dividend-price ratio model, in
which the log of the price-earnings ratio is a linear function of required future returns, expected
earnings growth rates, and expected dividend payout rates.
Chapter 2 introduction to the variables - constants – expressions - flow control - methods. In this chapter you will learn: Basic C# syntax variables, constants, expressions; how to branch code, loop code; how to write and call method; how to catch an exception.
Chapter 4 – Probability concepts. This chapter define a random variable, an outcome, an event, mutually exclusive events, and exhaustive events; explain the two defining properties of probability; distinguish among empirical, subjective, and a priori probabilities; state the probability of an event in terms of odds for or against the event;...
Chapter 5 – Common probability distributions. This chapter define and explain a probability distribution; distinguish between and give examples of discrete and continuous random variables; define a probability function, state its two key properties, and determine whether a given function satisfies those properties;...
Chapter 7 (part 1) - Entropy: A measure of disorder. In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Examine a special class of idealized processes, called isentropic processes, and develop the property relations for these processes; derive the reversible steady-flow work relations; develop the isentropic efficiencies for various steady-flow devices; introduce and apply the entropy balance to various systems.