Fluid abnormalities

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Clinical review: The meaning of acid–base abnormalities in the intensive care unit – effects of fluid administration...

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  • Encephalitises are a group of inflammatory human and animal diseases of brain caused essentially by different pathogens. In spite of evident success in approaches for prevention, diagnostics and treatment during the last decades, the encephalitises of different etiology still constitute a menace for thousands of people all around the world. In this book the different aspects of encephalitises of different etiology are discussed such as diagnostics, treatment and clinical management of patients.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 36. Edema Edema: Introduction Edema is defined as a clinically apparent increase in the interstitial fluid volume, which may expand by several liters before the abnormality is evident. Therefore, a weight gain of several kilograms usually precedes overt manifestations of edema, and a similar weight loss from diuresis can be induced in a slightly edematous patient before "dry weight" is achieved. Anasarca refers to gross, generalized edema. Ascites (Chap.

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  • Cytogenetic Testing in Prenatal Diagnosis The vast majority of prenatal diagnostic studies are performed to rule out a chromosomal abnormality, but cells may also be propagated for biochemical studies or molecular analyses of DNA. Three procedures are used to obtain samples for prenatal diagnosis: amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and fetal blood sampling. Amniocentesis is the most common procedure and is routinely performed at 15–17 weeks of gestation.

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  • Effusions Fluid may accumulate abnormally in the pleural cavity, pericardium, or peritoneum. Asymptomatic malignant effusions may not require treatment. Symptomatic effusions occurring in tumors responsive to systemic therapy usually do not require local treatment but respond to the treatment for the underlying tumor. Symptomatic effusions occurring in tumors unresponsive to systemic therapy may require local treatment in patients with a life expectancy of at least 6 months. Pleural effusions due to tumors may or may not contain malignant cells.

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  • Diagnostic Testing For intractable symptoms or an elusive diagnosis, selected diagnostic tests can direct clinical management. Electrolyte replenishment is indicated for hypokalemia or metabolic alkalosis. Detection of iron-deficiency anemia mandates a search for mucosal injury. Pancreaticobiliary disease is indicated by abnormal pancreatic enzymes or liver biochemistries, whereas endocrinologic, rheumatologic, or paraneoplastic etiologies are suggested by specific hormone or serologic testing.

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  • Although most women have a laparotomy for diagnosis, some women have a procedure known as laparoscopy. The doctor inserts a thin, lighted tube (a laparoscope) through a small incision in the abdomen. Laparoscopy may be used to remove a small, benign cyst or an early ovarian cancer. It may also be used to learn whether cancer has spread. A pathologist uses a microscope to look for cancer cells in the tissue or fluid. If ovarian cancer cells are found, the pathologist describes the grade of the cells. Grades 1, 2, and 3 describe how abnormal the cancer cells look.

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