Saha and Celata Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:344 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/344
Advances in modelling of biomimetic fluid flow at different scales
Sujoy Kumar Saha1* and Gian Piero Celata2
Abstract The biomimetic flow at different scales has been discussed at length. The need of looking into the biological surfaces and morphologies and both geometrical and physical similarities to imitate the technological products and processes has been emphasized.
Gas–liquid multiphase flows play an essential role in the workings of Nature and
the enterprises of mankind. Our everyday encounter with liquids is nearly always
at a free surface, such as when drinking, washing, rinsing, and cooking. Similarly,
such flows are in abundance in industrial applications: heat transfer by boiling is
the preferred mode in both conventional and nuclear power plants, and bubbledriven
circulation systems are used in metal processing operations such as steel
making, ladle metallurgy, and the secondary refining of aluminum and copper.
Adobe® Dreamweaver® CS6 web design software provides an intuitive visual interface for making and editing HTML websites and mobile apps. Use new Fluid Grid Layout designed for cross-platform compatibility to create adaptive layouts. Review designs with the enhanced Multiscreen Preview before publishing.
An interesting aspect of Fluid Mechanics is the often surprising connection betwee
seemingly disparate problems. The similarity between radionuclide migration an
wood charring may not be immediately obvious, but the radial basis functio
approach described in the next chapter underscores the connection between the two
In these problems, the interface between the fluid and the solid boundary changes i
time according to events within the fluid.
The first chapter of the fourth section describes a method that is naturally suited for
fluid mechanics problems, and then considers its application for solid mechanics,
particularly when plasticity or changing material interfaces are present. The material is
modeled as particles, each of which can have its own properties. Because the
connectivity of the particles is not prescribed, the method is particularly suitable to
problems that include large deformations.
When Windows Phone 7 was released in the fall of 2010, it represented a significant departure not only from previous Microsoft mobile operating systems, but also from every other mobile operating system (OS) on the market. The user interface was clean, bold, and fluid, with a strong focus on the user’s content, rather than app chrome. The Start screen (see Figure 1-1) provided a level of personalization available nowhere else.
Adsorption occurs whenever a solid surface is exposed to a gas or liquid: it is defined as the enrichment of material or increase in the density of the fluid in the vicinity of an interface. Under certain conditions, there is an appreciable enhancement in the concentration of a particular component and the overall effect is then dependent on the extent of the interfacial area. For this reason, all industrial adsorbents have large specific surface areas (generally well in excess of 100mZg-I) and are therefore highly porous or composed of very fine particles...
Human–Computer Interaction (HCI) is no longer restricted to interaction between
users and computers via keyboard and screen: Currently one of the most challenging
aspects of interactive systems is the integration of the physical and digital aspects of
interaction in a smooth and usable way. The design challenge of such mixed reality
(MR) systems lies in the fluid and harmonious fusion of the physical and digital
worlds. Examples of MR systems include tangible user interfaces, augmented reality,
augmented virtuality and embodied interfaces.
Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases, E.C. 188.8.131.52) are ubiquitous enzymes of consid-
erable physiological significance and industrial potential. Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of
triacylglycerols to glycerol and free fatty acids. In contrast to esterases, lipases are activated
only when adsorbed to an oil–water interface (Martinelle et al., 1995) and do not hydrolyze
dissolved substrates in the bulk fluid. A true lipase will split emulsified esters of glycerine
and long-chain fatty acids such as triolein and tripalmitin. Lipases are serine hydrolases.
We studied theoretically and experimentally the transformation, attenuation, and setup due to shoaling and breaking of internal waves in a two-layer fluid system on a uniform slope. An image processing technique was used to illustrate 2D instantaneous displacements of density interface. These results were compared with the calculated values by using the method of characteristics, the simple shoaling model with energy dissipation, and the momentum balance equation based on a radiation stress concept.