Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a technique where the electron-beam is
transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with specimen as it passes
through it. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons transmitted
through the specimen, which is then magnified and focused onto an imaging device,
such as a fluorescent screen, a photographic film, or a charge-coupled device (CCD)
sensor. This technique is capable of imaging at significantly high resolution than the
light microscopes, owing to the small de-Broglie wavelength of electrons....
The introduction of FISH methodologies in the late 1980s revolutionized the field of cytogenetics. In principle, FISH is similar to other DNA-DNA hybridization methodologies. The probe is labeled with a hapten, such as biotin or digoxigenin, to allow detection with a fluorophore (e.g., FITC or rhodamine). After the hybridization step, the specimen is counter-stained and the preparations are visualized with a fluorescence microscope.
Recruitment of HIV-1 envelope occurs subsequent to lipid mixing: a fluorescence microscopic evidence
Miao-Ping Chien, Chi-Hui Lin and Ding-Kwo Chang*
Address: Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, ROC Email: Miao-Ping Chien - firstname.lastname@example.org; Chi-Hui Lin - email@example.com; DingKwo Chang* - firstname.lastname@example.org * Corresponding author
Published: 2 March 2009 Retrovirology 2009, 6:20 doi:10.
The uptake of five fluorescein labeled cell-penetrating peptides (Tat, Tat2,
mutated-Tat, peptide vascular endothelial-cadherin and transportan) was
studied in wheat immature embryos. Interestingly, permeabilization treat-ment of the embryos with toluene⁄ethanol (1 : 20, v⁄v with permeabiliza-tion buffer) resulted in a remarkably higher uptake of cell-penetrating
peptides, whereas nonpermeabilized embryos failed to show significant cell-penetrating peptide uptake, as observed under fluorescence microscope and
by fluorimetric analysis....
Microscopic and imaging techniques:
– Optical microscopy
– Confocal microscopy
– Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, related methods)
– Scanning probe microscopy (STM and AFM, related methods) Surface spectrometric techniques:
– X-ray fluorescence (from electron microscopy)
– Auger electron spectrometry
– X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS/UPS/ESCA)
S100A1 is a typical representative of a group of EF-hand calcium-binding
proteins known as the S100 family. The protein is composed of twoasub-units, each containing two calcium-binding loops (N and C). At physiologi-cal pH (7.2) and NaCl concentration (100 mm), we determined the
microscopic binding constants of calcium to S100A1 by analysing the
-titration curves of Trp90 fluorescence for both the native protein
and its Glu32fiGln mutant with an inactive N-loop.