The past decade has seen the field of proteomics expand from a highly technical endeavor to a widely utilized technique. The objective of this book is to highlight the ways in which proteomics is currently being employed to address issues in the biological sciences. Although there have been significant advances in techniques involving the utilization of proteomics in biology, fundamental approaches involving basic sample visualization and protein identification still represent the principle techniques used by the vast majority of researchers to solve problems in biology.
HeR2 status. Your pathology report
usually includes the cancer’s HER2
status. The HER2 gene is responsible for
making HER2 proteins. These proteins
are receptors on breast cells. Under
normal circumstances, HER2 receptors
help control how a breast cell grows,
divides, and repairs itself. But in about
25% of breast cancers, the HER2 gene
can become abnormal and make too
many copies of itself (amplification of
the HER2 gene). Amplified HER2 genes
command breast cells to make too
many receptors (overexpression of the
Extrusion processing is widely utilized in the food and feed industries for the
manufacture of value-added products. Extrusion processing is a versatile technology
producing a wide range of products, including confectionery products, pasta,
ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, flat bread, snack products, texturized proteins, and
small water bodies like ponds now contributes 80% of the country’s inland
fish production. However, future growth in freshwater aquaculture to meet
rising demand for fish is likely to be constrained by limited supplies of land for
digging new ponds and of water to fill them.
In this context, reservoirs offer immense scope for increasing fish production.
Certain works like agriculture or pests killing represent the biggest risks of acute
intoxication, while there is a latent danger for the population at large in their food chain
(Ospina et al, 2009) (Thundiyil et al, 2008).
The agricultural development model in Colombia is mainly based upon the use of agro
chemicals and according data reported by the Public Health Surveillance System of
Colombia (SIVIGILA), there were in 2008 6.650 intoxication cases for the use of pesticides
followed by 7.405 cases in 2009 and 8.
Biodiversity is fundamental to sustaining life, providing
critical ecosystem services such as food provisioning, water
purification, flood and drought control, nutrient cycling, and
climate regulation, amongst many others. These services
are essential to support human well-being and economic
growth. Yet despite the significant economic, social and
cultural values of biodiversity and ecosystem services,
biodiversity worldwide is being lost, and in some areas at
an accelerating rate.
The publications included in the review reported chemical analyses on 100 distinct
foodstuffs and presented data on 455 nutrients and other substances. Statistical analysis
by foodstuff was impractical given the large array of different foods (and cultivars/breeds)
presented in included publications. The review team therefore decided to facilitate
analysis and interpretation of the available information by categorising the nutrients and
other substances reported into nutrient groups or “families”. ...
Orexin A and B (also known as hypocretins), two recently discovered neuropeptides, play an important role in food intake, sleep/wake cycle and neuroendocrine functions. Orexins are endogenous ligands of two G-protein-coupled receptors, termed OX1 and OX2. This work presents the ﬁrst short orexin A and B analogues, orexin A 23–33 and orexin B 18–28, with high aﬃnity (119 ± 49 and 49 ± 23 nM) for OX1 receptors expressed on SK-N-MC cells and indicates the importance of the C-terminal part of the orexin peptides for this ligand–receptor interaction.
The fact that the gut microﬂ ora can be altered for the beneﬁ t of
human health has motivated the development of new functional food
ingredients. A probiotic is a live microbial food supplement, which
beneﬁ cially affects the host by improving its intestinal microbial bal-
ance (Fuller 1989). A prebiotic is deﬁ ned as a nondigestible food
ingredient that beneﬁ cially affects the host by selectively stimulating
the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the
colon, and thus improves host health (Gibson and Roberfroid 1995)....