Looking up ‘‘aquatic food web’’ on Google provides
a dizzying array of eclectic sites and information
(and disinformation!) to choose from. However,
even within this morass it is clear that aquatic
food-web research has expanded greatly over the
last couple of decades, and includes a wide array
of studies from both theoretical and empirical
perspectives. This book attempts to bring together
and synthesize some of the most recent perspectives
on aquatic food-web research, with a particular
emphasis on integrating that knowledge
within an ecosystem framework....
Challenges to sustaining the productivity of oceanic and coastal fisheries
have become more critical and complex as these fisheries reach the upper
limits to ocean harvests. In addition, it is now clear that we are managing
interactive and dynamic food webs rather than sets of independent single-species
Significantly revised and updated, this second edition of the bestselling Handbook of Nutrition and Food welcomes contributions from several new authors, including Elaine B. Feldman and Johanna Dwyer, notable leaders in nutritional science. Retaining the high level of scientific research, accessible language, and attention to detail of the original, this new edition reflects the changes and developments of the past six years in nutrition research by adding 12 new chapters and tripling the number of referential web addresses. ...
This book proposes a framework for a national-scale program to monitor changes
in mercury concentrations in the environment following the reduction of atmospheric
mercury emissions. The book is the product of efforts initiated at a workshop held
in Pensacola, Florida, in September 2003, involving more than 30 experts in the
fields of atmospheric mercury transport and deposition, mercury cycling in terrestrial
and aquatic ecosystems, and mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs and
No matter what export markets and outlets you target, in this day and age you must be
visible to consumers online. Having your own website is valuable whether you are
selling your products directly from your own site or just linking your website to the sites
where your products are available for purchase. (E.g. your distributor, retail shops or
catalogs that carry your products.) If you do not have the capacity to sell products from
your own website, concentrate on a few good web pages that tell your products’ stories
using compelling pictures.
To get interested consumers to your website, the site needs to be visible to surfers
using Google. Why is Google so important? The research firm Hitwise which measures
Web audiences, estimates that Google has 72% of the US search engine market,
versus 17.9 % for Yahoo. Microsoft’s two search services, MSN and Live.com,
constitute a distant third, at a combined 5.4 percent. Many website owners who track
where their visitors come from report that Google’s search engine now refers 80 to 90%
of their visitors.
For optimal results on Google you will want...
The Cork Wholesale Food Company has just had a Frame Relay circuit installed to its local central
office (CO) by the telco carrier. The network administrator must confirm that the router and Frame
Relay switch are able to successfully communicate.
In the previous chapter we began to consider how population interactions can shape communities. Our focus was on interactions between species occupying the same trophic level or between members of adjacent trophic levels.
27 Effects of Contaminants on Trophic Structure and
The empirical patterns are widespread and abundantly documented, but instead of an agreed explanation there is only a list of possibilities to be explored. (May 1981) There has been little synthesis of the relative roles of different ecological forces in determining population change and community structure. Rather, there is a collection of idiosyncratic systems, with their associated protagonists, in which opposing views on the importance of particular factors are debated. (Hunter and Price 1992)
This is a frightening development. There are traces within you – or, depending on your
circumstances and exposures, more than traces – of several hundred man-made chemicals.
Many are harmless (or at least are so far thought to be). Others, however, may cause cancer
and damage the nervous systems, reproductive systems, immune systems, or livers of animals.
Mounting scientific evidence is confirming long-term suspicions that they do the same to
Benthic algae have been intensively studied, especially over the past
two decades. This intensity has been stimulated by the widespread recognition
that benthic algae are ideal indicators of the health of many, if not
most, aquatic ecosystems. With this book we hope to synthesize this vital
area of research and share its essence with our colleagues and students. We
started with an outline of the myriad abiotic and biotic determinants of
benthic algal ecology.
Large lakes are important because of their size and
ecological distinctiveness, as well as their economic and
cultural value. Optimal management of them requires a
proper understanding of anthropogenic impacts, both on
the lake ecosystems, as such and on the services they
provide for society. The specific structural and functional
properties of large lakes, e.g. morphology,
hydrography, biogeochemical cycles, and food-web
structure, are all directly related to their size.
Ants, single-celled creatures such as the cellular slime mold, plants and animals in
ecosystems, and (even) human beings can congregate and display miraculously complex
behaviors.* Say a colony of ants in a tree needs to move to another tree, perhaps
in search of food. Some ants build a bridge by joining their bodies in a chain stretching
from one limb in one tree to another limb in another tree. Other ants cross over
this ant structure, walking over their peers. Once all the ants have crossed over, the
ants in the bridge begin to gracefully undo the structure, crossing one by one.
This book is about the distribution and abundance of different
types of organism, and about the physical, chemical but especially
the biological features and interactions that determine these
distributions and abundances.
Unlike some other sciences, the subject matter of ecology is
apparent to everybody: most people have observed and pondered
nature, and in this sense most people are ecologists of sorts. But
ecology is not an easy science.
The direction of science is often driven by methodological progress, and the topic
of this book is no exception. I remember sitting with a visitor on the terrace of a
hotel overlooking Lake Constance in the early 1970s. We were discussing the gravimetric
method of measuring total lipids in zooplankton. A few years later, as a visitor
in Clyde E. Goulden’s lab, I was greatly impressed by the ability of an
instrument called an Iatroscan to discriminate and quantify specific lipid classes
(e.g., triacylglycerols, polar lipids, wax esters).
This module is the eighth in a series of Extension materials
designed to provide Extension agents, Certified Crop Advisers
(CCAs), consultants, and producers with pertinent information on
nutrient management issues. To make the learning ‘active,’ and
to provide credits to Certified Crop Advisers, a quiz accompanies
The world ocean has somewhere between 10 000 and 100 000 seamounts more than 1 km
tall and as many as 1 000 000 features over 100 m tall. These are some of the least understood
habitats on the planet. Large seamounts, particularly those close to or within the
photic zone, support and attract rich biotic communities and are important for the status
of marine food webs and biodiversity. Intensive boom-and-bust fi sheries have depleted
fi sh populations and damaged or destroyed associated benthic communities.
Mass media still accounts for the bulk of ad spending: television (44.1 percent),
magazines (21.1 percent), newspapers (17.2 percent), radio (7.0 percent), and outdoor
(2.6 percent). The internet accounts for 8 percent. Internet advertising has grown each
year, while allocations to other media categories have consistently declined. The
internet accounts for 20 percent of consumer media consumption. Given the current
allocation of 8 percent of ad spending, continued growth in online advertising is
practically a certainty.
Online advertising (Web 1.
As you learned above, probably the most important function of
computers is their ability to store large amounts of data. The World
Wide Web is probably the largest source of information and is
available to anyone in the world with a computer and Internet
connection. By the end of 2006, there were well over 120 million
users connected to some 7 million websites. However, a good portion
of information stored on computers is sensitive and critical, and if
lost or accessed by the wrong person, could potentially create
tremendous personal anxiety and global problems.
This book owes its inception to my fascination with the natural microcosms
that are water-filled tree holes and, subsequently, the broader class of plant
container habitats we call phytotelmata. That fascination was born, first, in a
Somerset woodland, when my fellow undergraduate Alastair Sommerville
pointed out to me a massive stump hole, commenting that such places were
both entomologically special and of great potential as objects of ecological