We propose a backoff model for phrasebased machine translation that translates unseen word forms in foreign-language text by hierarchical morphological abstractions at the word and the phrase level. The model is evaluated on the Europarl corpus for German-English and FinnishEnglish translation and shows improvements over state-of-the-art phrase-based models.
This book has been written to help you learn new vocabulary. You already know hundreds of English words, but to speak and write English in normal situations you need aat least 1- 2, 000 words. In this book, there are around 1,250 new words and phrases for you to learn. You will find them on the left- hand page of each unit....
In its narrowest sense, a synonym is a word or phrase that is perfectly
substitutable in a context for another word or phrase. People who study
language professionally agree that there is no such thing as an ideal
synonym, for it is virtually impossible to find two words or phrases that
are identical in denotation (meaning), connotation, frequency,
familiarity, and appropriateness. Indeed, linguists have long noted the
economy of language, which suggests that no language permits a perfect
Choose ONE of the words or phrases given in the box to fill in the blank of each of the following sentences garlic to your diet!
16. What did the diet of the ancient Greeks mainly include?
17. Does beef have more fat than chicken?
18. Which countries do these foods: Aioli and tzatziki come from?
19. What do they all have in common?
20. According to the passage, what should we eat more often in order to reduce the risk of heart attack?
3. Read the passage and answer the questions below it
A key word in the modern American vocabulary is “stress”. Stress is the...
to turn off: to cause to stop functioning (also: to switch off, to shut off) (S)
Turn on and turn off, as well as their related forms, are used for things that flow, such as electricity, water, gas, etc. Please turn off the light when you leave the room.
to have one’s way: to arrange matters the way one wants (especially when someone else doesn’t want the
same way) (also: to get one’s way. My brother always wants to have his way, but this time our parents said that we could do what I wanted.
· If Sheila doesn’t get her way, she becomes very angry.
Intonation is important for learners of English because even with satisfactory consonants and vowels, a phrase/sentence with an incorrect intonation contour may change the intended meaning of the whole utterance.
Test vocabulary 5 is for students of the Cambridge Proficiency Examination, or students at university. There are test on phobias and animal, foreign words and phrases, and proverbs, as well as synonyms, idioms and homophones. Alist of dictionaries for further research is included in the Introduction. Test your vocabulary 5 contains 60 test.
The following sentences are incomplete. Choose one word or phrase marked A, B, C and D that best completes the sentence. RECORD your choice by CIRLING A, B, C or D on the answer sheet.
1. A law _________ competition should be worked out to create a fair playing field for businesses.
A. about B. above C. against D. of
2. _______________ a central bank can determine the minimum lending rate, it has no control over foreign currency.
In seminars and workshops over the past 40 years, I have had the good fortune to be able
to discuss style with several thousand specialists in engineering, medicine, and science.
This book presents the essence of our discussions and some supporting statistical
I wish to acknowledge my debt to the participants in those seminars, who listened to
my ideas, tried them out, and told me which were useful and which were not. I hope this
presentation of the ‘useful’ category will contribute to the gradual improvement of
standards of professional communication....
In terms of managing the one-on-one sessions, some pre-service teachers felt that it
was necessary to spend the entire meeting discussing a single problematic word or
phrase. These cases were usually handled by a discussion of the use of the word or
phrase and the teacher’s suggestions for alternative expressions.
TwicPen is a terminology-assistance system for readers of printed (ie. off-line) material in foreign languages. It consists of a hand-held scanner and sophisticated parsing and translation software to provide readers a limited number of translations selected on the basis of a linguistic analysis of the whole scanned text fragment (a phrase, part of the sentence, etc.).