Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Performance and Reliability of DSRC Vehicular Safety Communication: A Formal Analysis
This chapter collects some fundamental mathematical concepts that we will
use in our study of probability and statistics. Most of these concepts should
seem familiar, although our presentation of them may be a bit more formal
than you have previously encountered. This formalism will be quite useful
as we study probability, but it will tend to recede into the background as we
progress to the study of statistics.
There has been many discussion about which strategy is better, fundamental analysis or tehcnical analysis. Technical aproach has been reinforced by trading software which can be used to predict price based on price simulation, where it uses models for each market without regard the underlying economy or fundamental which driven the market. Several recently developed programs help boil down the maze of economic and fundamental information into a form useful by traders who do not have formal training in economics.
This paper proposes an analysis method for Japanese modality. In this purpose, meaning of Japanese modality is classified into four semantic categories and the role of it is formalized into five modality functions. Based on these formalizations, information and constraints to be applied to the modality analysis procedure are specified. Then by combining these investigations with case analysis, the analysis method is proposed. This analysis method has been applied to Japanese analysis for machine translation. ...
A morphologic and morphosyntactic analyzer for the Italian language has been implemented in VM/Prolog 131 at the IBM Romc Scientific Center as part of a project on text understanding. Aim of this project is the development of a prototype which analyzes short narrative texts (press agency news) and gives a formal representation of their "meaning" as a set of first order logic expressions. Question answering features are also provided. The morphologic analyzer processes every word by means of a context free grammar, in order to obtain its morphologic and syntactic characteristics. ...
Discourse in formal domains, such as mathematics, is characterized by a mixture of telegraphic natural language and embedded (semi-)formal symbolic mathematical expressions. We present language phenomena observed in a corpus of dialogs with a simulated tutorial system for proving theorems as evidence for the need for deep syntactic and semantic analysis. We propose an approach to input understanding in this setting.
Prosody can be useful in resolving certain lexical and structural ambiguities in spoken English. In this paper we present some results of employing two types of prosodic information, namely pitch and pause, to assist syntactic and semantic analysis during parsing. morphosyntactic interpretations to one correct analysis without error (p. 262). (Steedman 1990) explores taking advantage of intonational structure in spoken sentence understanding in the combinatory categorial grammar formalism.
Functional Unification G r a m m a r provides an opportunity to encompass within one formalism and computational s y s t e m the parts of m a c h i n e translation s y s t e m s t h a t have u s u a l l y been treated separately, natably analysis, transfer, and synthesis. Many of the a d v a n t a g e s of this formalism come from the fact t h a t it is monotonic allowing data structures to grow differently as different nondeterministic...
We present an algorithm for generating strings from logical form encodings that improves upon previous algorithms in that it places fewer restrictions on the class of grammars to which it is applicable. In particular, unlike an Earley deduction generator (Shieber, 1988), it allows use of semantically nonmonotonic grammars, yet unlike topdown methods, it also permits left-recursion. The enabling design feature of the algorithm is its implicit traversal of the analysis tree for the string being generated in a semantic-head-driven fashion. ...
A framework for a structured representation of semantic knowledge (e.g. word-senses) has been defined at the IBM Scientific Center of Roma, as part of a project on Italian Text Understanding. This representation, based on the conceptual graphs formalism [SOW84], expresses deep knowledge (pragmatic) on word-senses. The knowledge base data structure is such as to provide easy access by the semantic verification algorithm. This paper discusses some important problem related to the definition of a semantic knowledge base, as depth versus generality, hierarchical ordering of concept types, etc.
A formalism is a set of notation with well-defined semantics (namely for the interpretation of the symbols used and their manipulation), by means of which one formally expresses certain domain knowledge, which is to be utilised for specific purposes. In this paper, we are interested in formalisms which are being used or have applications in the domain of machine translation (MT).
Good systems analysts thoroughly evaluate alternative solutions before proposing change. In this chapter you will learn how to analyze and document those alternatives on the basis of four feasibility criteria: operational, technical, schedule, and economic. You will also learn how to make a system proposal in the form of a written report and a formal presentation.
Chapter 10 - Feasibility analysis and the system proposal. In this chapter you will learn how to analyze and document those alternatives on the basis of four feasibility criteria: operational, technical, schedule, and economic. You will also learn how to make a system proposal in the form of a written report and a formal presentation.
Lecture notes have been around for centuries, either informally, as handwritten notes,
or formally as textbooks. Recently improvements in typesetting have made it easier to
produce \personalised" printed notes as here, but there has been no fundamental change.
Experience shows that very few people are able to use lecture notes as a substitute for
lectures; if it were otherwise, lecturing, as a profession would have died out by now.
The purpose of this book is to provide a straightforward but thorough
introduction to accounting and finance for executives and managers who
are studying these subjects, formally, for the first time. It is an entry-level
text to be used before moving on to more advanced material.
A high degree of practicality and relevance are introduced with a
strong ‘real world’ flavour supported by examples from leading international
companies. The glossary of terms is designed to be as comprehensive
as possible so that readers can obtain clear guidance at a time
when they most need it....
The final chapter of the book presents an innovative method for fluid mechanical
design in which an object within the flow field is build element-by-element. Each
element is introduced into the flow, and its effect on a cost function is minimized with
respect to the object’s position. An element may represent added material or a
removed part of the existing structure. This chapter presents a strong degree of
The literature of cryptography has a curious history. Secrecy, of course, has
always played a central role, but until the First World War, important
developments appeared in print in a more or less timely fashion and the field
moved forward in much the same way as other specialized disciplines. As late
as 1918, one of the most influential cryptanalytic papers of the twentieth
century, William F. Friedman’s monograph The Index of Coincidence and Its
Applications in Cryptography, appeared as a research report of the private
Riverbank Laboratories .
This paper presents SIENA, an event notiﬁcation service that we have de-
signed and implemented to maximize both expressiveness and scalability. In
Section 3we describe the service’s formally deﬁned application programming in-
terface,which is an extension of the familiar publish/subscribe protocol [Birman
1993]. Several candidate server topologies and protocols are presented in Sec-
Chapter J Normed Linear Spaces
This chapter introduces a very important subclass of metric linear spaces, namely, the class of normed linear spaces. We begin with an informal discussion that motivates the investigation of such spaces. We then formalize parts of that discussion, introduce Banach spaces
remains the principal source of funding and distribution, even when
only a relatively small proportion of production is conducted entirely
in-house. Technically independent productions include Hollywood
blockbusters such as Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) and Basic
Instinct (1992), produced by the independent Carolco in an alliance
with TriStar Pictures.