Formalism

Formal Letter Writing How to Write Formal Letters Help with formal and business letter writing. A summary of writing rules including outlines for cover letters and letters of enquiry, and abbreviations used in letters.
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A formal language: Is an abstraction of the general characteristics of programming languages. Consists of a set of symbols and some formation rules by which these symbols can be combined into sentences. Accepts input, produces output, may have some temporary storage, and can make decisions in transforming the input into the output.
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A basic problem that must be dealt with in order to build an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in the domain of foreign language teaching is that of establishing what kind of grammatical knowledge has to be included in the domain expert module. Two basic options are possible: (i) to use a naive or pedagogical grammar, comprising knowledge derived from textbooks and school grammars or (ii) to use one of the formal grammars developed by theoretical and computational linguists.
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Formal methods mathematical languages, techniques and tools, used to specify and verify systems, goal is help engineers construct more reliable systems. Introduction to Formal Methodspresents about introduction; formal specification; formalformal verificationverification; model checking; theorem proving.
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Formal specification of agent behaviour through environment scenarios introduces a formal notation for the specification of scenario s in agent based systems. The autonomous and collaborative behavior of an agent can be formally specified by a set of rules describing its activity in various scenarios. The power of the approach is illustrated by the formal specification of maes.
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The aim of this work is to present some preliminary results of an investigation in course on the typology of the morphology of the native South American languages from the point of view of the formal language theory. With this object, we give two contrasting examples of descriptions of two Aboriginal languages ﬁnite verb forms morphology: Argentinean Quechua (quichua santiague˜ o) and Toba.
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The paper investigates the problem of providing a formal device for the dependency approach to syntax, and to link it with a parsing model. After reviewing the basic tenets of the paradigm and the few existing mathematical results, we describe a dependency formalism which is able to deal with longdistance dependencies. Finally, we present an Earleystyle parser for the formalism and discuss the (polynomial) complexity results.
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Formal Specification provides mathematical specification; specification of programming languages; formal specification using diagrams; two rules; example Z specification language, algorithm; finite state machine; state transition diagram; state transition table; Z specification and some thing else.
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Dominance links were introduced in grammars to model long distance scrambling phenomena, motivating the deﬁnition of multisetvalued linear indexed grammars (MLIGs) by Rambow (1994b), and inspiring quite a few recent formalisms. It turns out that MLIGs have since been rediscovered and reused in a variety of contexts, and that the complexity of their emptiness problem has become the key to several open questions in computer science.
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In contrast to many languages (like Russian or French), modern English does not distinguish formal and informal (“T/V”) address overtly, for example by pronoun choice. We describe an ongoing study which investigates to what degree the T/V distinction is recoverable in English text, and with what textual features it correlates. Our ﬁndings are: (a) human raters can label English utterances as T or V fairly well, given sufﬁcient context; (b), lexical cues can predict T/V almost at human level. ...
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Minimal Recursion Semantics (MRS) is the standard formalism used in largescale HPSG grammars to model underspeciﬁed semantics. We present the ﬁrst provably efﬁcient algorithm to enumerate the readings of MRS structures, by translating them into normal dominance constraints.
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This paper presents a restricted version of SetLocal MultiComponent TAGs Weir, 1988 which retains the strong generative capacity of TreeLocal MultiComponent TAG i.e. produces the same derived structures but has a greater derivational generative capacity i.e. can derive those structures in more ways. This formalism is then applied as a framework for integrating dependency and constituency based linguistic representations.
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In what sense is a grammar the union of its rules? This paper adapts the notion of composition, well developed in the context of programming languages, to the domain of linguistic formalisms. We s t u d y alternative definitions for the semantics of such formalisms, suggesting a denotational semantics that we show to be compositional and fullyabstract. This facilitates a clear, mathematically sound way for defining g r a m m a r modularity.
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A common feature of recent unificationbased g r a m m a r formalisms is that they give the user the ability to define his own structures. However, this possibility is mostly limited and does not include nonmonotonic operations. In this paper we show how nonmonotonic operations can also be userdefined by applying default logic (Reiter, 1980) and generalizing previous results on nonmonotonic sorts (Young and Rounds, 1993).
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This paper describes a structuresharing method for the representation of complex phrase types in a parser for PATR[I, a unificationbased g r a m m a r formalism. In parsers for unificationbased grammar formalisms, complex phrase types are derived by incremental refinement of rite phrase types defined in grammar rules and lexical entries. In a naive implementation, a new phrase type is built by copying older ones and then combining the copies according to the constraints stated in a grammar rule. ...
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In this paper1 we introduce eXtensible MetaGrammar, a system that facilitates the development of tree based grammars. This system includes both (1) a formal language adapted to the description of linguistic information and (2) a compiler for this language. It applies techniques of logic programming (e.g. Warren’s Abstract Machine), thus providing an efﬁcient and theoretically motivated framework for the processing of linguistic metadescriptions.
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Informal and formal (“T/V”) address in dialogue is not distinguished overtly in modern English, e.g. by pronoun choice like in many other languages such as French (“tu”/“vous”). Our study investigates the status of the T/V distinction in English literary texts. Our main ﬁndings are: (a) human raters can label monolingual English utterances as T or V fairly well, given sufﬁcient context; (b), a bilingual corpus can be exploited to induce a supervised classiﬁer for T/V without human annotation.
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We present an operable definition of focus which is argued to be of a cognitopragmatic nature and explore how it is determined in discourse in a formalized manner. For this purpose, a file card model of discourse model and knowledge store is introduced enabling the decomposition and formal representation of its determination process as a programmable algorithm (FDA).
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This paper presents an algorithm for the compilation of regular formalisms with rule features into finitestate automata. Rule features are incorporated into the right context of rules. This general notion can also be applied to other algorithms which compile regular rewrite rules into automata.
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The paper introduces a grammar formalism for defining the set of sentences in a language, a set of labeled trees (not the derivation trees of the grammar) for the representation of the interpretation of the sentences, and the (possibly nonprojective) correspondence between subtrees of each tree and substrings of the related sentence. The grammar formalism is motivated by the linguistic approach (adopted at GETA) where a multilevel interpretative structure is associated to a sentence.
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