An automatic essay paraphrasing system, written in JOVIAL, produces essay-like paraphrases of input texts written in a subset of English. The format and content of the essay paraphrase are controlled by an outline that is part of the input text. An individual sentence in the paraphrase may often reflect the content of several sentences in the input text. The system uses dependency rather than transformational criteria, and future versions of the system may come to resemble a dynamic implementation of a stratificational model of grammar....
The purpose of this book remains what it was in the
first seven editions: to present the fundamental principles
and facts of human physiology in a format that
is suitable for undergraduate students, regardless of
academic backgrounds or fields of study: liberal arts,
biology, nursing, pharmacy, or other allied health professions.
Biomimetics is the science of emulating nature’s design. In nature, living organisms
synthesize mineralized tissues and this process of biomineralization is under strict biological
control. It involves the interactions of several biological macromolecules among
themselves and with the mineral components. Generally, natures design principles are
based on a “Bott om-Up” strategy. Such processes lead to the formation of hierarchically
structured organic-inorganic composites with mechanical properties optimized for a
This chapter presents basic knowledge on the special kind of the machining process in which a workpiece material hardened to 45–70 HRC hardness or more is machined with mixed ceramic or CBN tools. An extended comparison with finish grinding, as well with other abrasive finishing processes, is carried out. Specific cutting characteristics, including cutting forces, chip formation mechanisms and tool wear modes with relevant interface temperatures are discussed in terms of process conditions. Currently developing finite element (FE) and analytical modelling is overviewed.
The first section of the book includes the following topics: fusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes of titanium alloys and their numerical modelling, mechanism of ?-case formation mechanism during investment casting of titanium, genesis of gas-containing defects in cast titanium products. Second section includes topics on behavior of the (? + ?) titanium alloys under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, hot and super plasticity of titanium (? + ?) alloys and some machinability aspects of titanium alloys in drilling. ...
Due to the success of the first edition of
The Engineering Handbook
published in 1995 I am pleased to
provide the second edition ten years later fully updated and expanded.
The purpose of
The Engineering Handbook, Second Edition
is to provide in a single volume a ready
reference for the practicing engineer in industry, government, and academia. The book in its comprehensive
format is divided into 30 sections which encompass the field of engineering and includes 19
brand new chapters and 131 fully updated contributions.
During development, cells and tissues undergo dynamic changes in pattern
and form that employ a wider range of physical mechanisms than at any other
time during an organism’s life. Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo presents
a framework within which physics can be used to analyze these biological
Written to be accessible to both biologists and physicists, major stages
and components of biological development are introduced and then analyzed
from the viewpoint of physics. The presentation of physical models requires no
mathematics beyond basic calculus.
Most colleges and universities now have courses and degree programs related to
materials science. Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic, organic, and nanobased
materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth
and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field in a concise format.
This book is a collection of 29 excellent works and comprised of three sections: task oriented approach, bio inspired approach, and modeling/design. In the first section, applications on formation, localization/mapping, and planning are introduced. The second section is on behavior-based approach by means of artificial intelligence techniques. The last section includes research articles on development of architectures and control systems.
The applications of underwater vehicles have shown a dramatic increase in recent years,
such as, mines clearing operation, feature tracking, cable or pipeline tracking and deep
ocean exploration. According to different applications, the mechanical and electrical
configuration and shape of an underwater vehicle are different. For instance, manipulators
are necessary when doing mines clearing operation or some other tasks which need to deal
The historical background of probiotics can be traced back to when the first definition
of probiotic bacteria was given by Russian scientist Elie Metchnikoff who stated that
probiotics are considered to exert a beneficial effect on the host. This was confirmed
later on by an official statement by FAO/WHO. In their reviews, two group of
investigators Matur et al. and Boaventura et al., presented the impact of probiotics on
the physiology of the GIT and the underlying mechanism of action of this microflora
and the benefits derived with the use of probiotics in human and animal nutrition.
"The Arguments of Agriculture is a delightful read for both the specialist and the person just getting to know the increasingly contested terrains of agricultural policy and ideology. The approach is even-banded, insightful, and faithful to diverse claims." - Frederick H. Buttel "Its well-planned format makes the book particularly useful for studying the philosophy, sociology, or economics of agricultural industry, as well as for environmental studies." - ENVIRONMENT
In describing her art, Louise Nevelson has written: “I do not belong
to any movement. As my work is related to the present time, it is
bound to be related to that of others, consciously or not....” Her art
may be more closely related to her collections of African art,
American farm tools, architectural elements, and diverse other
fragments of the past and her attraction to the art and architecture of
pre-Columbian Mexico and Central America.
Provide a vocabulary to describe complex resource
bundles. In any system, be it administrative or market-
based, users need a mechanism to express their resource
holdings and desires. Markets, which have been used for
decades to capture difﬁcult resource allocation problems
(e.g. energy markets, wireless spectrum auctions, airline
landing slot exchanges), can also be used to capture the
intricacies of systems problems.
where V is the volume worn away, W is the normal load, x is the sliding distance, H is the hardness of the surface being worn away, and k is a nondimensional wear coefficient dependent on the materials in contact and their exact degree of cleanliness. The term k is usually interpreted as the probability that a wear particle is formed at a given asperity encounter. Equation (21.5) suggests that the probability of a wear-particle formation increases with an increase in the real area of contact, Ar (Ar = W=H for plastic contacts), and the sliding distance. ...