Business is the economic mode of operation conditions exist in the economy of goods, including the overall methods, forms and means by which economic agents to make use of its economic activity (including the process of investment, production, transportation, trade, services ...) on the basis of value rules apply along with other rules, in order to achieve the highest capital profitability.
For many years, the stock and futures markets have been consid-
ered separate and distinct entities. Stocks (securities) have been the
backbone of capitalism and are still regarded as such today. Stocks
are considered the “stuff” of which all “good investments” are fash-
ioned. Not only has stock and bond trading been considered neces-
sary for the survival of industry and business in a capitalist society,
but it has also been regarded as the single most viable form of in-
vesting for the general public.
What is investment banking? Is it investing? Is it banking? Really, it is neither. Investment banking, or I-banking, as it is often called, is the term used to describe the business of raising capital for companies and advising them on financing and merger alternatives. Capital essentially means money. Companies need cash in order to grow and expand their businesses; investment banks sell securities to public investors in order to raise this cash. These securities can come in the form of stocks or bonds, which we will discuss in depth later....
We believe that the information in this booklet will be helpful during a company’s review of Vietnam as a site for a factory, to provide a service, or otherwise as an investment venue. We have emphasized material that would normally be on a site selection team’s check list.
While the information is only a summary, we believe that this summary provides a significant amount of information on which a company can rely to understand Vietnam’s legal context.
We hope that the material is useful.
This report describes the main quantitative investment regulations applied to pension funds in OECD
and selected non-OECD countries as of December 2010.
The questionnaire covers all types of pension plans financed via pension funds. Where regulations
vary depending on the type of plan (occupational, personal, mandatory, voluntary, DB, DC, etc), the tables
identify the types of plan that the investment regulations apply to.
Thus, mutual funds, while going by a variety of names, are fairly comparable around the globe.
this paper, we contrast mutual funds with other ways in which households might save and invest in
financial assets, which we characterize broadly as “do-it-yourself (DIY)” and “opaque financial
intermediaries.” Whereas a mutual fund is defined as a pooled diversified investment vehicle, “do-it-
yourself” investments are direct investments by households in primary securities (bonds, stocks or cash).
Yet the shift towards health-systems strengthening
and its support through the International Health
Partnership (IHP+) and other related initiatives
offer a framework within which SRH may be more
The support offered to ministries of health by
the UNFPA and WHO country offices has been
marked by greater collaboration and a stronger
functional focus. This has been achieved through
harmonization of activities in the United Nations
Development Assistance Framework, and by
practical engagement of technical working groups
and similar structures for SRH.
In the EU, investment funds can be broadly categorised as UCITS (undertakings for collective
investment in transferable securities) and non-UCITS (or non-harmonised) funds.
funds are those that comply with harmonised rules as laid down in the UCITS Directive
(85/611/EEC) and are authorised for sale to the retail market.
Non-harmonised funds (hereafter referred to collectively as alternative investment funds, or
AIF) do not form a homogenous class of investment fund.
AIF invest in a wide variety of
asset types and employ very different investment strategies.
This paper develops theory missing in the sizeable literature that uses data envelopment
analysis to construct return : risk ratios for investment funds. It explores the production
possibility set of the investment funds to identify an appropriate form of returns to
scale. It discusses what risk and return measures can justiﬁably be combined and how
to deal with negative risks, and identiﬁes suitable sets of measures. It identiﬁes the
problems of failing to deal with diversiﬁcation and develops an iterative approximation
procedure to deal with it.
The most fundamental aspect of Shariah compliance is the prohibition of any form of usury,
. Any amount in a contract of loan or debt – regardless of size – that exceeds the
principal is riba. Such contracts are prohibited by the Quran, regardless of whether the loan
is taken for the purpose of consumption or for some production activity. This indicates that
any forms of receiving or paying interest are not allowed, because Islam defines all forms
of interest as usury.
The rationale behind the prohibition of interest in Islam suggests an economic system...
Several years ago I gave a seminar about some of my research. I started out with a
very simple example. One of the faculty in the audience interrupted me to say that he had
worked on something like this several years ago, but his model was \much more complex".
I replied \My model was complex when I started, too, but I just kept working on it till it
And that's what you should do: keep at it till it gets simple. The whole point of
a model is to give a simplied representation of reality. Einstein once said \Everything
should be as simple as possible...
The growth in
the production of hardware and software for these sectors has been phenomenal, certainly
equaling or exceeding anything in the Industrial Revolution. These industries have located
to new sites, either in the suburbs in existing metropolitan areas or in rapidly growing,
relatively new cities (Scott, 1993; Castells and Hall, 1994). Almost nowhere have they
been significant as employment generators for older, inner cities. As growth generators,
they are, at best, indirect.
La Ribah Agro India Pvt Ltd is originated from one of the most fascinating industries called agricultural industry.La Ribah Agro India is the result of the group of the most bustling personnel by their intense knowledge and exposure into the agricultural field. La Ribah Agro India has assorted projects in the areas of farming as in Emu Farming, Goat Farming, Horse Farming, Rabbit Farming, Dairy Farming, Fishing and Fish Farming. Farming is also the most beneficial, ravishing and product oriented form of business.
Civic Economics and HousingWorks are pleased to present this analysis of the economic impact of General Obligation Bonds issued since 2006 to support affordable housing.
In 2006, 63% of Austin voters supported the issuance of $55 million in general obligation bonds to support the development of affordable housing in the city. Just short of $50 million has been expended and leveraged to obtain an additional $177 million in development expenditures, for a total expenditure in the city of $226 million.
This version includes some minor revisions made by the Expert Group in June 2004, based on
comments received following the Riga Meeting, and revisions to the annexes describing the relevant
IFAC Auditing Standards, based on the finalisation of these Standards. The amended version was sent
to EU SAIs and discussed at the Liaison Officers Meeting on 4-5 October.
A promissory note is a form of debt – similar to a loan– that a company may issue to
raise money. Typically, an investor agrees to loan money to a company for a set period of
time. In exchange, the company promises to pay the investor a fixed return on his or her
investment, generally principal plus annual interest. While promissory notes can be
legitimate investments, those that are marketed broadly to individual investors often turn
out to be scams. Investors should carefully investigate the legitimacy of all promissory
notes. The following are examples of such...
Chapter 3 - Market efficiency. The topics discussed in this chapter are: Definition of efficient markets; different forms of market efficiency; evidence regarding market efficiency; implications for fundamental analysis, technical analysis, and portfolio management; market pricing anomalies; behavioral finance.
Chapter 11 - The international monetary system. The main goals of this chapter are to: Present a historical overview of the main forms of the international monetary system, explain how the international monetary (IMF) system functions and some major current issues related to the IMF, understand the case for a fixed rate regime and for a floating exchange rate regime,...
Chapter 13 - Export import management. The main goals of this chapter are to: Describe the ‘nuts and bolts’ of exporting, and how basic export–import transactions work, uderstand the role of INCOTERMS in export–import operations, examine the main methods of payment in an international sale, outline the main form of trade financing techniques (e.g. credit, factoring, forfaiting),...