Formulating definitions

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  • The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is one of the most important multilateral conventions in history. Adopted in 1982, and effectively completed in 1994 with a revision of Part XI on Deep Seabed Mining, the Convention is today in force for 160 nations plus the European Union. In its 17 parts encompassing 320 articles with nine annexes (and Final Act with six annexes) the Convention is the authoritative contemporary basis for the law of the sea.

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  • What is the definition of a formulation? Why is it needed? What is the importance of a formulation? These are some important questions that need to be addressed during the development of a potential drug product. The strict definition of the word is to specify a formula or to express a formula in systematic terms or concepts. The formula, in the current case, is a pharmaceutical dosage form. A formulation is needed to deliver the drug or the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to its targeted site. In order to overcome some of the physiochemical limitations of an API,...

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  • Credit hour is the unit by which an institution measures its course work. The number of credit hours assigned to a course quantitatively reflects the outcomes expected, the mode of instruction, the amount of time spent in class, and the amount of outside preparatory work expected for the class. Considerable variation exists from institution to institution and within a given institution. A semester credit hour is the most commonly used system of measuring course work and is usually based on at least a 14-17 week calendar.

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  • Technical approaches seek to reduce the emissions produced by road vehicles using the transport system by intervening with the vehicles being used and the fuels they are burning. By definition, these approaches address per unit emissions rather than the amount of activity causing the emissions. An exclusively technological approach may be insufficient to address the growth in emissions, for a number of reasons. First, growt h in activity continuously puts pressure on technology gains.

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  • While peer-to-peer (P2P) video streaming systems have achieved promising results, they introduce a large number of unnecessary traverse links, which con- sequently leads to substantial network ine±ciency. To address this problem and achieve better streaming performance, we propose to enable cooperation among group peers, which are geographically neighboring peers with large intra-group up- load and download bandwidths.

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  • Bayesian Estimation Theory: Basic Definitions Bayesian Estimation The Estimate–Maximise Method Cramer–Rao Bound on the Minimum Estimator Variance Design of Mixture Gaussian Models Bayesian Classification Modeling the Space of a Random Process Summary B ayesian estimation is a framework for the formulation of statistical inference problems. In the prediction or estimation of a random process from a related observation signal, the Bayesian philosophy is based on combining the evidence contained in the signal with prior knowledge of the probability distribution of the process.

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  • In order to accommodate this kind of diversity, it is important that project cycle management systems support the application of standard working modalities/rules in a flexible manner. Relationship between projects, programmes and policies: A well-formulated project should derive from an appropriate balance between the EC’s development policy priorities and the partner’s development priorities. Within the scope of these policy priorities, the executive arms of government or non-governmental agencies formulate the broad areas of work required to implement policy decisions.

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  • Natural resources- definition, characteristics and classification of natural resources. Historical development of natural resource economics, major natural resource issues, role of economics in natural resource planning, policy formulation and management. Common property resources. Time and spatial analysis in use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. Natural resource accounting. Natural resource scarcity, measures to mitigate resource scarcity, individual utility and the social welfare function.

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  • Mathematicians seek out patterns[9][10] and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions.

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  • The precise formulation of derivation for treeadjoining grammars has important ramifications for a wide variety of uses of the formalism, from syntactic analysis to semantic interpretation and statistical language modeling. We argue that the definition of tree-adjoining derivation must be reformulated in order to manifest the proper linguistic dependencies in derivations. The particular proposal is both precisely characterizable, through a compilation to linear indexed grammars, and computationally operational, by virtue of an efficient algorithm for recognition and parsing. ...

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  • This paper discusses the consequences of allowing discontinuous constituents in syntactic representions and phrase-structure rules, and the resulting complications for a standard parser of phrase-structure grammar. It is argued, first, that discontinuous constituents seem inevitable in a phrase-structure grammar which is acceptable from a semantic point of view. It is shown that tree-like constituent structures with discontinuities can be given a precise definition which makes them just as acceptable for syntactic representation as ordinary trees.

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  • A system has been programmed in JOVIAL to serve as a vehicle for testing hypotheses about language change through time. A basic requirement of the system is that models must be formulated within the framework of Sapir's concept of drift and Bloomfield's definition of a speech community.

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  • The analysis of blood, bone marrow and tissue fluid specimens requires a multi–faceted approach with the integration of scientific data from a number of disciplines. No single discipline can operate in isolation or errors will occur. Flow cytometry is in a privileged position in that it can provide rapid analysis of specimens and it is often the first definitive investigation to produce results and help formulate a working diagnosis.

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