Natural language questions have become popular in web search. However, various questions can be formulated to convey the same information need, which poses a great challenge to search systems. In this paper, we automatically mined 5w1h question reformulation patterns from large scale search log data.
Web search is an information-seeking activity. Often times, this amounts to a user seeking answers to a question. However, queries, which encode user’s information need, are typically not expressed as full-length natural language sentences — in particular, as questions. Rather, they consist of one or more text fragments.
We propose a new method for query-oriented extractive multi-document summarization. To enrich the information need representation of a given query, we build a co-occurrence graph to obtain words that augment the original query terms. We then formulate the summarization problem as a Maximum Coverage Problem with Knapsack Constraints based on word pairs rather than single words.
The design and implementation of a paraphrase component for a natural language questlon-answer system (CO-OP) is presented. A major point made is the role of given and n e w information in formulating a paraphrase that differs in a meaningful way from the user's question. A description is also given of the transformational grammar used by the paraphraser to generate questions. I• INTRO~ION fact, a lexicon and database schema are the only items which contain domain-specific information.
In the current project, we aim at developing an approach for automatically answering why-questions. We created a data collection for research, development and evaluation of a method for automatically answering why-questions (why-QA) The resulting collection comprises 395 why-questions. For each question, the source document and one or two user-formulated answers are available in the data set. The resulting data set is of importance for our research and it will contribute to and stimulate other research in the field of why-QA.
What is the deﬁnition of a formulation? Why is it needed? What is the importance of a formulation? These are some important questions that need to be addressed during the development of a potential drug product. The strict definition of the word is to specify a formula or to express a formula in systematic terms or concepts. The formula, in the current case, is a pharmaceutical dosage form. A formulation is needed to deliver the drug or the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to its targeted site. In order to overcome some of the physiochemical limitations of an API,...
Some common practical questions and suggested answers
During the development of coating formulae and processes, common problems tend to recur. This section brings together a collection of typical queries and provides suggested solutions. 1. Question: What major process and formulation parameters do I need to take into account in the change from organic solvent coating to aqueous coating? Answer: Looking first of all at the formulation-based parameters, there is a need to increase the solids loading of the coating suspension to something like 12 %w/w if using a typical HPMC-based formula.
Having identified and classified relevant water pollution problems, and having assigned
priority to them, the next step is to identify appropriate interventions to cope with the
problems. For every problem identified, therefore, an assessment should be made of the
most appropriate means for intervention. Furthermore, an indication should be given of
the relevant administrative level(s) to be involved. The proposed interventions may vary
significantly in detail and scope.
On average, a disaster occurs somewhere in the world each day.
These events are almost always of high local interest. Occasionally they are
also of national interest, and every now and then they capture the attention
of the entire world. In this new century, we already have witnessed disasters
so great that they were virtually incomprehensible.
Common side effects of the anti-tuberculosis drugs should be described to the
patient. The health care worker should also explain that if the patient experiences
any side effects during the treatment, he or she should immediately report those side
effects to the doctor or nurse.
At every encounter, health care workers can ask patients, “How are you feeling?” or
another general question such as, “Have you had any problems after taking the
drugs?” Health care workers can help patients identify and manage side effects.
The workshop focused on several key areas of small scale aquaculture in PNG. The nutritional
requirements and feeding of fish, the assessment and selection of feed ingredients, the principles
of formulating and manufacturing simple farm made feeds and the appropriate storage of feed
ingredients and diets. In terms of lecture content, the majority of information related to nutrition
and feeding strategies for fish. These lectures were presented by Dr’s Geoff Allan and Mark
This chapter explains the use of secondary data sources to develop and formulate research questions. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: The purpose and process of exploratory research, the two types and three levels of management decision-related secondary sources, the five types of external information and the factors for evaluating the value of a source and its content,…
Chapter 1 - What is biomechanics? After completing this chapter, you will be able to: Define the terms biomechanics, statics, dynamics, kinematics, and kinetics, and explain the ways in which they are related; describe the scope of scientific inquiry addressed by biomechanists; distinguish between qualitative and quantitative approaches for analyzing human movement; explain how to formulate questions for qualitative analysis of human move.
Chapter 5 - Clarifying the research question through secondary data and exploration. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: The process of using exploratory research to understand the management dilemma and work through the stages of analysis necessary to formulate the research question (and, ultimately, investigative questions and measurement questions); what is involved in internal data mining and how internal data-mining techniques differ from literature searches.
Chapter 2 shows you how to identify the topic question that will direct your research and lead directly to your thesis statement. This is the most important, and often the most neglected, feature of essay writing. If you do not have a topic question, you will not be able to formulate a thesis statement.
One of the greatest challenges faced by the food scientist is man himself with his
highly sensitive oral equipment for evaluating food texture. The recognition of this
challenge leads immediately to two questions: ‘How can we characterize the texture of
foodstuffs in a manner that will reflect human perceptions?’ and, then, ‘How may we
preserve, formulate and process products in a way that will be acceptable to the
This section attempts to answer some of the questions you might formulate when you turn the first page: What does this toolbox do? Can I use it? What problems can I solve?, etc.
What Does this Toolbox Do?
The Partial Differential Equation (PDE) Toolbox provides a powerful and flexible environment for the study and solution of partial differential equations in two space dimensions and time. The equations are discretized by the Finite Element Method (FEM). The objectives of the PDE Toolbox are to provide you with tools that:
• Define a PDE problem, i.e.
At the end of the 19-th century, physics was at its most confidence
situation. Classical phyics, as formulated in Newton’s law of mechanics
and Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism, have proved very successful
in solving every problem.
→At that time there seemed to be no question for which physics could
not provide an answer !!!
But then it came as a great shock when some simple phenomena were
observed which could not be explained by classical physics
→a new theory, quantum theory, was developed at the beginning of the
Aims and Scope of the Series The fundamental questions arising in mechanics are: Why?, How?, and How much? The aim of this series is to provide lucid accounts written by authoritative researchers giving vision and insight in answering these questions on the subject of mechanics as it relates to solids. The scope of the series covers the entire spectrum of solid mechanics.
This book, like its conventional counterpart Normal Findings in Radiography,
deals with the apparently banal subject of the normal. It
addresses the question of how to recognize what is normal and how to
describe normal findings. These questions are as important in computed
tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as in other modalities.
Even “sectional imaging” is based on the classical approach of reading
images and formulating findingPetrous pyramids