Forward rates

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  • In this section we look at data concerning 10-year government bond yields. Although our main interest is the default risk, this presents only one channel through which fiscal policies can affect long-term yields. There are other channels operating through monetary-fiscal interaction, which should be reflected in the evolution of yields. Therefore we start our descriptive analysis in this section by looking at yields, forward rates and inflation expectations at a weekly frequency. Then we move to an analysis of interest rate swap spreads, at a weekly and daily frequency.

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  • England gained more operational independence and the long-term ináation target was known, the dynamics of the long-term forward rate was more stable. Orphanides andWilliams (2003) demonstrate also on a theoretical basis how the observed overreaction of long-term interest rates to the short-term interest rate could be explained by the presence of imperfect knowledge and a perpetual learning process by agents about the structure of the economy and the policymaker preferences.

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  • There are purported to be over 10,000 mutual funds available to the public for purchase. There are also many hundreds of sponsors, each with a stable of these funds. Each of a sponsor's funds pursues a different investment strategy. At any point in time, and over varying periods of time, merely by the laws of random chance, it is inevitable that some funds will have delivered higher returns than others. Those funds which have delivered the highest returns are given the greatest visibility by the many mutual fund rating services; and they are also the specific...

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  • The government liability nominal yield curves are derived from UK gilt prices and General Collateral (GC) repo rates. The real yield curves are derived from UK index-linked bond prices (section 1 below describes these instruments). By appealing to the Fisher relationship, the implied inflation term structure is calculated as the difference of instantaneous nominal forward rates and instantaneous real forward real rates (section 2 makes clear exactly what these terms mean).

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  • Because an interest rate swap is just a series of cash flows occurring at known future dates, it can be valued by sim ply summing the present value of each of these cash flows. In order to calculate the present value of each cash flow, it is necessary to first estimate the correct discount factor (df) for each period (t) on which a cash flow occurs. Dis count factors are derived from investors’ perceptions of in terest rates in the future and are calculated using forward rates such as LIBOR. The following formula calculates a theoretical rate (known as the “Swap Rate”) for...

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  • Another notable increase occurred in the forward-rate agreement (FRA) usage. FRA is a contract that determines the rate of interest, or currency exchange rate, to be paid or received on an obligation beginning at some future date. At the end of 1996, 9.02 percent of the sample banks report using FRAs. By the end of 2004, the percentage using FRAs more than doubled. While the percentage of banks participating in the swaps and forwards increased over the sample period, the proportion of banks using interest-rate options fell.

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  • To which extent this decrease in bond yields is associated with changes in short-term or long-term rates becomes more evident when looking at the yield curve defined as the 10-year government bond yield minus the three months Euribor shown in Figure 2. Over the entire year, the slope of the yield curve fell by roughly 20 bp to somewhat less than 130 bp. The same trend is also illustrated by the implied one-year forward rate in nine years, as extracted from the German zero-coupon curve. 20 The rate falls by 10 bp in the course of year, although there are sizeable developments over time.

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  • First, it is worth remembering that the reduction in reserve demand is in large part the result of the failure of reserves to pay interest. The incentive to economize on reserves was greater when inflation made nominal interest rates much higher than they are today. But even at current interest rates, banks continue to find ways to avoid holding reserves. 13 A falling demand for reserves is far from inevitable if the opportunity cost of holding reserve balances at a central bank is reduced by achieving price stability or by paying interest on reserves.

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  • Chapter 18 decribes international aspects of financial management. In this chapter you will understand how exchange rates are quoted and what they mean, know the difference between spot and forward rates, understand purchasing power parity and interest rate parity and the implications for changes in exchange rates, understand the types of exchange rate risk and how they can be managed, understand the impact of political risk on international business investing.

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  • Giá Option (Premium) phụ thuộc vào nhiều nhân tố: tỷ giá giao ngay (Spot Rate), tỷ giá thoả thuận trên hợp đồng (Strike), thời hạn thoả thuận (Maturity), tỷ giá kỳ hạn (Forward Rate), lãi suất, tỷ giá dự đoán, phương sai… Ví dụ: Đồ thị biểu diễn lời lỗ của nhà đầu tư khi tham gia nghiệp vụ quyền chọn bán American Style: được thực hiện bất kỳ thời điểm nào trong thời gian của hợp đồng.

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  • A study to measure indoor concentrations and emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, was conducted in a new, unoccupied manufactured house installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) campus. The house was instrumented to continuously monitor indoor temperature and relative humidity, heating and air conditioning system operation, and outdoor weather. It also was equipped with an automated tracer gas injection and detection system to estimate air change rates every 2 h.

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  • The market in bond market securities, also known as the fixedincome market, is incredibly large and diverse, and one that plays an irreplaceable part in global economic development. The vast majority of securities in the world today are debt instruments, with outstanding volume estimated at more than $10 trillion. Fixed-Income Securities and Derivatives Handbook provides a concise and accessible description of the main elements of the markets, concentrating on the instruments used and their applications.

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  • Additionally, this positive association holds for interest-rate options contracts, forward contracts, and futures contracts, suggesting that banks using any form of these contracts, on average, experience significantly higher growth in their C&I loan portfolios. Furthermore, C&I loan growth is positively related to capital ratio and negatively related to C&I loan charge-offs. The findings in this study are confirmed after a robustness check.

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  • The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, after an extensive consultation process, redrafted its recommendations for credit institutions’ regulatory capital requirements (Basel I) issued in 1988. The revision was motivated by the wish to adequately refl ect current developments in banking and to strengthen the stability of the international fi nancial system.

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  • In this example, we considered six-month forward rates. We can consider forward rates that rule for different periods, for example 1-year, or 3-month or two-week forward rates. In the limit, as the period of the loan considered tends to zero, we arrive at the instantaneous forward rate. Instantaneous forward rates are a stylised concept that corresponds to the notion of continuous compounding, and are commonly used measures in financial markets.

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  • The international consequences of zero-interest-rate policies are also negative. With interbank markets in the U.S. and Europe congested, forward foreign exchange markets become more difficult to organize. Without forward cover, exporters and importers find it more difficult to secure normal letters of credit. In the financial panic of 2008, foreign trade imploded much more than domestic trade. In addition, the Fed’s zero interest rate strategy inevitably weakens the dollar in the foreign exchanges.

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  • The point is not that the US and other traditionally strong scientific nations are decreasing output and submissions— they are not, the number of submissions is growing globally—but others are doing so at faster rates. This growth may flatten out as nations develop and mature, but this may take many years, and the axis of research may look significantly different in 10–20 years should these trends continue. The effects of this shift will continue to impact publishers directly.

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  • Twenty years of regional population growth at almost 3 per cent per year has outpaced economic gains, leaving sub-Saharan Africans, on average, 22 per cent poorer than they were in the mid-1970s. The region’s progress is also hampered by large-scale migrations of people trying to escape poverty and political instability. Contributing to this migration is the large youth population, which fuels a rapid increase in new entrants to the labour market, and high fertility rates, outpacing the capacity of economies to generate a sufficient numbers of jobs.

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  • The willingness of banks to make such forward commitments to lend to nonbank firms and households depends very much on the wholesale interbank market. If the wholesale interbank market works smoothly without counter party risk at positive interest rates, then even currently illiquid banks can make forward loan commitments to their retail customers. If such a bank happens to be still illiquid when a corporate customer suddenly draws down its credit line, the bank can cover its retail commitment by bidding for funds in the wholesale market...

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  • The wholesale interbank market (where banks trade with each other) reduces the risk for banks making forward commitments to lend at retail— to households and firms, including exporters and importers. The collapse of the U.S. housing bubble in 2007-08 impaired bank balance sheets so that banks became reluctant to lend to each other from counterparty risk. Consequently retail bank credit fell sharply, thus worsening the crisis. By 2009, the U.S.

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