As in a past decades, the world today continues to be at crossroads in terms of energy.
Shortages and rising prices of fuel, accompanied by environmental damage are
leading to a poor quality of life. Fossil fuel consumption is increasing, and our search
for oil has led to ever deeper reserves, with its higher production costs. Rapid
depletion of oil and gas are real issues affecting both current and future generations.
The most popular energy sources being used today (fossil fuels) are finite and will need to be replaced in the future. The possible sources of energy which can be used in place of fossil fuels each have their own advantages and disadvantages. In chapter 12, we will learn the energy from fossil fuels. This chapter also provide a description of the various types of fossil fuels including their sources and methods used for their extraction.
"Energy for a Warming World" challenges the commonplace notion that the amount of power which mankind can potentially harness from renewable resources is more than large enough to assuage future demand levels. By examining the renewable issue from an electrical engineering perspective, and exercising due regard for the limited capability of current and future electrical generation and transmission systems, this book attempts to provide more realistic statistics for the levels of power which could be extracted from sustainable resources in the critical time frame of 30 to 40 years....
When fuel cells were first suggested and discussed back in the nineteenth century,
it was firmly hoped that distinctly higher efficiencies could be attained with them
when converting the chemical energy of natural fuels to electric power. Now
that the world supply of fossil fuels is seen to be finite, this hope turns into
a need, into a question of maintaining advanced standards of life.
The two most important environmental hazards faced by humankind today are air pollution and global warming. Both have a direct link with our current overdependence on fossil fuels. Pollutants produced from combustion of hydrocarbons now cause even more health problems due to the urbanization of world population
The major source of liquid fuels is crude petroleum; other sources are shale and tar sands. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels—gasoline and methanol—can be made from coal and natural gas. Ethanol, some of which is used as an automotive fuel, is derived from vegetable matter.
Gaseous fuels are generally easier to handle and burn than are liquid or solid fuels. Gaseous fossil fuels include natural gas (primarily methane and ethane) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG; primarily propane and butane). Gaseous man-made or artificial fuels are mostly derived from liquid or solid fossil fuels. Liquid fossil fuels have evolved from animal remains through
In this user-friendly and informative book, prolific author and academic Vaclav Smil provides an introduction to this far-reaching term and gives the reader a greater understanding of energy's place in both past and present society. Starting with an explanation of the concept, he goes on to cover such exciting topics as the inner workings of the human body, and the race for more efficient and environmentally friendly fuels.
Discussions about the future of transportation are marked by three key factors À growing energy demand and energy security on the one side and climate change and environmental protection on the other. The word that is most often used to embody all these concerns is ‘sustainability’ or, in the ﬁeld of transportation, ‘sustainable mobility’. Achieving sustainable mobility is the big challenge for the future in the vehicle and associated industries. It is now common wisdom that transport based on fossil resources is a ﬁnite proposition.
Smog is another secondary pollutant. This term was developed to describe a substance that
is a hybrid of smoke and fog. The SOx aerosols are one source of smog formation. As
discussed earlier, sulfuric acid droplets, or sulfuric acid absorbed on the surface of soot
and fly ash particles, can attract moisture from the air to form what is often referred to as
conventional or ‘classical’ smog.
Both high import payments for petroleum motor fuels and concerns regarding emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are motivating interest in possible fuel substitutes. Petroleum products derived from conventional crude oil constitute more than 50 percent of end-use energy deliveries in the United States and more than 95 percent
Global warming is the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth's average surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 °C, with about two thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels.
Năng lượng thay thế ( Alternative energy ) là năng lượng thu được từ những nguồn ngoài 3 dạng Nhiên liệu hóa thạch ( Fossil Fuel ): Than đá ( coal ), Dầu mỏ ( oil ) và Khí tự nhiên ( Natural gas ). Những nguồn năng lượng thay thế này bao gồm: Năng lượng hạt nhân ( Nuclear power ), Năng lượng mặt trời ( Solar power ), Năng lượng gió ( Wind power ),Năng lượng địa nhiệt ( Geothermal energy ), Năng lượng sinh khối ( Biomass energy ), Năng lượng nước ( Hydropower ) và một...
Improvements in agriculture health and
medicine have produced a dramatic rise in
the human population
This increase in population size leads to an
increase in pollution and higher demand
for the world’s resources. Humans are using up the earth’s resources,
including fossil fuels.
With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel.
After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods.
Tình trạng năng lượng ngày càng khan hiếm trên thế giới, đặc biệt là các loại năng lượng hoá thạch (fossil fuels) như dầu khí và than đá. Hiện nay, giá dầu thô đã bước qua ngưỡng cửa 90 Mỹ kim và có nhiều chỉ dấu sẽ tăng lên 100 Mỹ kim trong một tương lai không xa cũng như trữ lượng dầu ...
Engineering for sustainability is an emerging theme for the twenty-first century,
and the need for more environmentally benign electric power systems is a critical
part of this new thrust. Renewable energy systems that take advantage of
energy sources that won’t diminish over time and are independent of fluctuations
in price and availability are playing an ever-increasing role in modern power
Because of the potential public health implications, the importance of toxic air pollutants in ambient
air has been recognized to some degree for many years. Efforts to “regulate” human activities
resulting in the production of ambient air pollutants probably date back many centuries, even as
the combustion of fossil fuels and air pollution from other organized human activities began having
a noticeable impact on the environment.
The process of generating power depends on several energy-conversion processes, starting with the chemical energy in fossil fuels or the nuclear energy within the atom. This energy is converted to thermal energy, which is then transferred to the working fluid, in our case, steam. This thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy with the
The present “Solar Energy” science book hopefully opens a series of other first-hand texts in new technologies with practical impact and subsequent interest. They might include the ecological combustion of fossil fuels, space technology in the benefit of local and remote communities, new trends in the development of secure Internet Communications on an interplanetary scale, new breakthroughs in the propulsion technology and others.