There is a vast multitude of materials with strongly differing properties. A
copper wire, for instance, can be bent easily into a new shape, whereas a
rubber band will snap back to its initial form after deformation, while the
attempt to bend a glass tube ends with fracture of the tube. The strongly
differing properties are reflected in the application of engineering materials –
you would neither want to build cars of glass nor rubber bridges. The multitude
of materials enables the engineer to select the best-suited one for any
Rheology involves the study of the deformation and flow of matter. The goal is to
establish relationships between stress and deformation for (non-Newtonian) materials
where neither Newton's law nor Hooke's law suffice to explain their mechanical
behaviour. Many materials exhibit a non-Newtonian behaviour and the area is
relevant in many fields of study from industrial to technological applications such as
concrete technology, geology, polymers and composites, plastics processing, paint
flow, hemorheology, cosmetics, adhesives, etc ......
It is now three years since Elsevier Science published the first book of Failure Analysis Case
Studies selected fiom volumes 1,2 and 3 of the journal Engineering Failure Analysis. The book
has proved to be a sought-after and widely used source of reference material to help people avoid
or analyse engineering failures, design and manufacture for greater safety and economy, and
assess operating, maintenance and fitness-for-purpose procedures.
This study gives an overview of the most recent literature on the subject. There seem to be
more than a thousand publications. However there are only few field data, especially from
studies on soil-water and soil-plant transfer and on the long-term behaviour of conta-
minants in soils.
Unfortunately there are very little publications in English from some EU-countries. The study
gives an overview of the conclusions of various national working groups and makes
suggestions on how to direct future research activities. ...