This paper identifies five water environmental problems in the Delta that are the principal limiting factors of agricultural production and human health, i.e. (i) the salinity intrusion in the coastal areas, (ii) the effect of acid sulfate soils, (iii) the polluted water from human activities, (iv) the fresh water shortage in the dry season and (v) the flood in the rainy season. The discussion and conclusion present the people’s adaption strategies and water gorvernance issues in pursing sustainable management in the region.......
Economic development, population growth, and environmental pollution evolving in many parts of the world are placing great demands on existing resources of fresh water and reflecting a "water crisis". Resource management, efficient utilization of the water resources, and above all water purification are all alternatives to resolve the water crisis. Purification approaches include traditional approaches that have lasted for several centuries without major modifications as well as new innovative approaches....
Environmental problems usually develop from the interactions of people, consumption, and
resources. Increasing population, increasing consumption and limited resources exacerbate these
problems. One concern that heads the list of critical problems is the availability of clean, fresh,
surface water. It is the basis of the existence of human societies and economies. Fresh water is
essential for many forms of life, is required by humans for drinking, agriculture, and most industrial
processes, and plays a prominent role in our recreational activities....
Water is finite on earth. There is a fixed amount of water which neither decreases or
increases. Fresh water is a renewable resource because of the water cycle. From a human
perspective the source of freshwater is rainfall. Most of this rainfall is used directly for
vegetative growth, such as natural vegetation, pasture, rain-fed maize etc. This process,
known as transpiration, is highly productive and produces in Southern Africa the bulk of
It is widely accepted that irrigation allows for the increase and stability in agrarian
yields, being a necessary tool to support food supplies and necessities for certain raw
materials in the world. However, irrigated agriculture is also considered the most
significant fresh water consumer and one of the main causes of pollution, degradation
and depletion of natural resources. These impacts are primarily related to changes in
the water cycle, salinization of agricultural soils, and salinization and pollution of
water resources due to the use of agrochemicals....
In order to maintain economic development and minimize future regional and
international conflicts, the United States will need sustainable supplies of high-quality fresh water. Solutions to local water scarcity issues will likely require a combination of approaches, including demand management, improved water storage capacity, water
quality protection, and advancements in supply-enhancing water treatment technologies. Desalination technologies can create new sources of freshwater from otherwise impaired waters such as seawater or brackish water.
Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand. Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change will increase pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.
Water is a nutrient vital to human life, just as it is a fundamental element in the economic vitality of any country. In arid regions across the globe, people have long depended upon desalination to supplement limited fresh water resources despite its...historically high costs.
to build Factory for producing fresh water bottle of Five Star GROUP in Ho Chi Minh City –the total investment of the factory is USD 60,000 (for infrastructure & feasible studies).
The factory will be built & put into operation in November 2010.
The approved budget (excluding salary of Project Team Members & sharing cost with other cost centers) is USD 60,000
Wastes are materials generated as a result of numerous anthropic activities and should
be disposed to prevent environmental pollution which aff ects human health and contributes
ecosystem degradation. Most of the environmental problems, which we are
dealing with, are a result of improper management of wastes. In particular, fresh water
resources are under serious stress throughout the globe. Water supply and water quality
degradation are global concerns.
At Hoa An research station - belonging to Can Tho University - a student dormitory and other research facilities are under construction. The existing ground water supply will not meet the prospective fresh water demands of about 300 people in the nearest future.
Water is an essential and basic human need for urban, industrial and agricultural use.
While there exists an abundance of fresh water resources is available, its uneven
distribution around the globe creates challenges for the sustainable use of this resource.
According to World Health Organization in 2011, over 1 billion people lack safe drinking
water, approximately 3 billion people lack adequate sanitation, and over 2 million people
die annually from water-related diseases.
There is an estimated 1.4 billion km3 of water in the world but only approximately
three percent (39 million km³) of it is available as fresh water. Moreover, most of this
fresh water is found as ice in the arctic regions, deep groundwater or atmospheric
water. Since water is the source of life and essential for all life on the planet, the use of
this resource is a highly important issue. 'Water management' is the general term used
to describe all the activities that manage the optimum use of the world’s water
Populations in developing countries are growing so quickly that the land and
water are unable to sustain them. In most developing countries, prime farmland
and fresh water are already fully utilized. Although irrigation can be employed to
bring land in arid areas into production, it often leads to salinization. In some
countries, the amount of newly irrigated land is equalled by salinized irrigated
land going out of production. Moreover, irrigation water is often drawn from
river basins or aquifers shared by several countries, and friction over its use is
As a result, there is
little awareness regarding the fact that the organization and characteristics of a
production and supply chain strongly influence the volumes (and temporal and
spatial distribution) of water consumption and pollution that can be associated
with a final consumer product. Hoekstra and Chapagain (2008) have shown
that visualizing the hidden water use behind products can help in understanding
the global character of fresh water and in quantifying the effects of consumption
and trade on water resources use.
The earth’s surface is two-thirds water, yet most of this is undrinkable or unusable because it is either seawater or ice. Of the 1% that is available as fresh water, most is used for farming or industry. Fresh water pollution is the major problem because many rivers and streams are being polluted with pesticides, industrial waste, and sewage. In poor and developing countries, the addition of sewage to the sources of water leads to diseases, and even death. A United Nations’ report estimates that more than 78% of people drink from polluted water supplies.
Engineers . . .Build products such as cell phones, home appliances, heart valves, bridges, & cars. In general they advance society by building new technology. Develop processes, such as the process to convert salt water into fresh water or the
process to recycle bottles. These processes change how we live and what we can accomplish.Decisions made by
engineers usually have
serious consequences to
Yadav et al. (2007) studied on fertilizer industrial discharge showed that some components
in the discharge may interact with each other and produce toxic to aquatic organisms. For
instance, the interaction between dissolved oxygen and ammonia changed the respiratory
physiology in fresh water fish. In addition, results showed that the toxicity of the effluent in
fish depends on concentration and duration of exposure.
In many parts of the world the primary source of animal protein for humans is finfish. The
intensive culture of finfish has grown significantly since the 1980s partly because of the
dramatic decline in the natural fish stocks and the increase in fish consumption by the
ever-increasing population. For example, the worldwide consumption of fish between
1990 and 1997 increased by 30% while the capture fisheries increased only by 9%.
Benthic algae have been intensively studied, especially over the past
two decades. This intensity has been stimulated by the widespread recognition
that benthic algae are ideal indicators of the health of many, if not
most, aquatic ecosystems. With this book we hope to synthesize this vital
area of research and share its essence with our colleagues and students. We
started with an outline of the myriad abiotic and biotic determinants of
benthic algal ecology.