Published in Phnom Penh in October 2002 by the. Mekong River Commission ... This paper was compiled by M.J. Phillips, with contributions from those listed in the .Thailand is blessed with an abundance of marine and freshwater resources. in 2002 it ranked in the top-ten fishing nations of the world. Thailand is also recognised for the advances it has made in developing its aquaculture sector. Capture...
Limitations on the availabilityof water resourcesareamong the greatest challenges facing
modern society, despite the fact that roughly 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water.
Human society depends on liquid freshwater resources to meet drinking, sanitation and hy‐
giene, agriculture, and industry needs.Roughly 97% of the earth’s surface and shallow sub‐
surface water is saline and about 2% is frozen in glaciers and polar ice.
Water is finite on earth. There is a fixed amount of water which neither decreases or
increases. Fresh water is a renewable resource because of the water cycle. From a human
perspective the source of freshwater is rainfall. Most of this rainfall is used directly for
vegetative growth, such as natural vegetation, pasture, rain-fed maize etc. This process,
known as transpiration, is highly productive and produces in Southern Africa the bulk of
Thailand is blessed with an abundance of marine and freshwater resources. In 2002 it
ranked in the top-ten fishing nations of the world. Thailand is also recognised for the
advances it has made in developing its aquaculture sector.
Capture fisheries and aquaculture in the Thai portion of the Lower Mekong Basin are a
major component of these aquatic resources. It has been estimated from fish
consumption studies that the average annual yield of inland fish is around 795,000
Wetland ecosystems are a natural resource of global significance.Historically,
their high level of plant and animal (especially bird) diversity is perhaps the
major reason why wetland protection has become a high priority worldwide,
supported by international agreements, such as the Ramsar Convention and
the International Convention of Biological Diversity (Fig. 1.1).
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change, the impacts of climate chang
on the water cycle are already evident and
projected to increase substantially in the futur
Climate change impacts the quantity and qua
of freshwater resources and the frequency of
extreme events, such as floods and droughts
While climate change is only one of many
drivers increasing pressure on water resource
its impact is projected to be significant and to
accelerate over time. Climate change reinforc
and adds urgency to the case for good water
resources management more generally.
Global Warming has become perhaps the most complicated issue being faced by world leaders. Thus, it requires field of attention for many modern societies, power and energy engineers, academicians, researchers and stakeholders. The so-called consensus in the past century anthropogenically induced Global Warming, has recently been disputed by rising number of climate change panelists.
A brief synthesis of the state of the environment is
given using the main themes in AEO-1 as the baseline,
but discussing this within the context of the Brundtland
report and the programme areas of NEPAD-EAP. Where
appropriate, the general regional situation has been
placed in the global context. Six thematic areas, forming
the basis of the chapters, have been used in the analysis –
Atmosphere, Land, Freshwater, Forests and Woodlands,
Coastal and Marine Environments, and Biodiversity.
Climate change can also be expected to have serious consequences on water resources. Melting
glaciers, higher intensity and more variable rainfall events, and increasing temperatures will
contribute to increased inland flooding, water scarcity and decreasing water quality. Overall, the
greatest human requirement for freshwater resources is for crop irrigation, particularly for
farming in arid regions and in the great paddy fields of Asia.
Intensity of use of freshwater resources (both
surface and groundwater) is expressed as gross
abstractions per capita, as a percentage of
total available renewable freshwater resources,
including inflows from neighbouring countries
(see below) and as a percentage of internal
resources. It has to be noted that when measured
at national level these indicators may hide
significant variations at territorial level.
Wastewater treatment connection rates show the
percentage of the national population actually
connected to public waste water treatment
Effective solutions to water quality challenges exist and have
been implemented in a number of places. It is time for a
global focus on protecting and improving the quality of the
world’s freshwater resources. There are three fundamental
solutions to water quality problems: (1) prevent pollution; (2)
treat polluted water; and (3) restore ecosystems.
A classic example of a water system severely affected by hu-
man development is the Aral Sea, fed by the Amu Darya and
Syr Darya. The Aral Sea was once the fourth largest inland
body of water in the world, after Lake Superior, supporting
24 unique species of fish and a large fishing population. The
Soviet Union built a series of dams and irrigation systems to
divert river flows in order to grow cotton on around 3 million
hectares of new farmland, but these massive freshwater
withdrawals (first order impacts) led to the shrinking of the
Sea and a corresponding increase in...
As a result, there is
little awareness regarding the fact that the organization and characteristics of a
production and supply chain strongly influence the volumes (and temporal and
spatial distribution) of water consumption and pollution that can be associated
with a final consumer product. Hoekstra and Chapagain (2008) have shown
that visualizing the hidden water use behind products can help in understanding
the global character of fresh water and in quantifying the effects of consumption
and trade on water resources use.
The landmass on which we live is an integral part of our water catchment. Any human activity
will inevitably have some consequences on the availability and composition of fresh
waters. These consequences are becoming increasingly important and detectable as the human
population grows. The problem is to be addressed at the global scale, as frequently,
decisions made have inter-regional and international impacts, and must therefore be coordinated.
In a number of European Member States, for example, the availability of water resources
depends on the activities of other upstream countries.
Four major changes have taken place following these scandals. First, the
nature of the audit industry has changed. Three of the Big 4 audit firms have
either divested or publicly announced plans to divest their consulting businesses.
2 Second, Arthur Andersen, formerly one of the Big 5 audit firms, has
gone out of business. Third, in July 2002, President George W. Bush signed
the Sarbanes-Oxley Bill (also known as the Corporate Oversight Bill) into
law. This law imposes a number of corporate governance rules on all public
companies with stock traded in the United States.
The world’s major food items, core requirements for
human health, come from wetland ecosystems. Rice,
a staple food item for almost half the world’s popu-
lation, is grown in a wide range of environments,
mostly wetland ecosystems. Rice receives 35–45%
of the world’s irrigation water and some 24–30% of
developed freshwater resources.
Charities and Congregations Are Ready and Willing.
We asked respondents how many additional volunteers
their organization could absorb and utilize effectively,
given their present capacity to manage or work with
volunteers and given unlimited availability of volunteers.
Fully 91 percent of charities and 96 percent of congregational
social service outreach programs said they could
currently take on at least some additional volunteers at
Demand for Volunteers among Charities Is High.
Human beings have a powerful effect on the environment, as is becoming increasingly clear. Demographic factors are commonly recognized as one of the primary global drivers of human-induced environmental change, along with biophysical, economic, sociopolitical, technological, and cultural factors. Concerns about demographic effects on the environment are
As the global population grows and many developing countries modernize, the
importance of water supply and water treatment becomes a much greater factor
in the welfare of nations. In similar fashion, the need to address both domestic
and industrial wastes generated by these nations moves higher on the scale of
importance. Clearly, in today’s world the competition for water resources coupled
with the unfortunate commingling of wastewater discharges with freshwater
supplies creates additional pressure on treatment systems....
The water problems in Asia’s cities are similar. These
include sources and uses of raw water, the large propor-tion of water loss in distribution networks, intermittent
supply, and the quality of tap water. In some cities, the
excessive use of groundwater resources has caused
serious environmental problems, including rapid deple-tion of groundwater, deterioration of water quality, and