Fuel cells are an important technology for a potentially wide variety of applications including
micropower, auxiliary power, transportation power, stationary power for buildings and other
distributed generation applications, and central power. These applications will be in a large
number of industries worldwide.
When fuel cells were first suggested and discussed back in the nineteenth century,
it was firmly hoped that distinctly higher efficiencies could be attained with them
when converting the chemical energy of natural fuels to electric power. Now
that the world supply of fossil fuels is seen to be finite, this hope turns into
a need, into a question of maintaining advanced standards of life.
Hydrogen and fuel cells are seen by many as key solutions
for the 21st century, enabling clean efficient production of
power and heat from a range of primary energy sources. The High Level Group for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies was initiated in October 2002 by the Vice President of the European Commission, Loyola de Palacio, Commissioner for Energy and Transport, and Mr Philippe Busquin, Commissioner for Research.
Các tế bào nhiên liệu (tiếng Anh: fuel cell) biến đổi năng lượng hóa học của nhiên liệu thí dụ như là hiđrô trực tiếp thành năng lượngđiện. Không giống như pin hoặc ắc quy, tế bào nhiên liệu không bị mất điện và cũng không có khả năng tích điện. Tế bào nhiên liệu hoạt động liên tục khi nhiên liệu (hiđrô) và chất ôxi hóa (ôxy) được đưa từ ngoài vào.
Hydrogen fuel cells are one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engine hybrids and pure battery electric power for propelling passenger vehicles. Compared to internal combustion engine hybrid vehicles burning hydrocarbon fuels, fuel cell vehicles offer three primary advantages. First, the fuel cell system produces no tank-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions and no other harmful emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, or particulates. Second, the fuel cell system offers the potential for approximately 30% higher well-to-wheel energy efﬁciency.
With increasing energy demands, dwindling fossil energy resources, and environmental concerns associated with criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases, signiﬁcant attention in the power generation community has been focused on increasing efﬁciency and reducing emissions. A highly efﬁcient and low-emission concept is the fuel cell gas turbine (GT) hybrid. Hybrid systems are comprised of fuel cells integrated with a GT engine. A variety of potential conﬁgurations have been proposed and a number of cycles have been investigated.
Background The vast majority of research into solid-state polymer electrolytes for low-temperature (o200 1C) fuel cells has focused on proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (PEMFCs). Recently, there has been interest in the application of the analogous anion-exchange membranes (AEMs), in alkaline forms, in low-temperature fuel cells (Figure 1).
Biofuels Engineering Process Technology has many contents: Harvesting Energy from Biochemical Reactions, Microbial Modeling of Biofuel Production, Biofuel Feedstocks, Ethanol Production, Biodiesel, Biological Production of Hydrogen, Microbial Fuel Cells.
The recent fuel cell (FC) development worldwide has always been accompanied by a number of studies and projects investigating the applications of FCs onboard ships. Almost all possible FC types and different fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas (liqueﬁed or pressurized), liqueﬁed pressurized gas (LPG), methanol, and maritime diesel have been considered. These applications of FCs are still mainly focused on onboard power generation (OPU) and propulsion.
Bài tập lớn Môi trường và con người: Công nghệ xanh và năng lượng sạch hạt nhân, địa nhiệt, Fuel Cell trình bày các nội dung chính: Công nghệ xanh và năng lượng sạch, Ứng dụng công nghệ xanh và năng lượng sạch, tế bào nhiên liệu, năng lượng địa nhiệt, năng lượng hạt nhân,... Đây là tài liệu tham khảo dành cho sinh viên Môi trường.
This article covers post-prototype fuel cell (FC) systems in stationary or ‘on-site’ applications, for use in non-grid-connected dispersed generation, or grid-connected distributed generation. Both are referred to here as DG. They include a range of sizes from kilowatt to megawatt scale, and may be in combined heat and power (CHP, cogeneration or dual energy use systems), or as electricity-only units. Trigeneration (combined heat, power, and cooling) is a further possibility.
Fuel cells (FCs) are electrochemical systems that continuously produce electric energy and heat, where the reactants (fuel and oxidant) are fed to the electrodes and the reaction products are removed from the cell. The chemical energy of the reactants is directly converted into electricity, reaction products, and heat without involving combustion processes. The efﬁciencies of the FCs are about twice those of the heat engines because the latter are affected by the limitations imposed by Carnot’s theorem.
The rapid growth of the portable electronics market includes ‘power-hungry’ accessories in a smaller system, which has led to the search for an alternative and advanced power source due to the limited energy density of conventional lithium-ion batteries. Table 1 lists the power demand of the different portable applications. Fuel cells promise to provide a more reliable and longer operational time than batteries. As the energy is stored as a reservoir rather than as an integral part of the power source, fuel cells have advantages over batteries.
Fuel cell-powered aircraft have been of long-term interest to the aviation community because of their potential for improved performance and environmental compatibility. Only recently have improvements in the technological readiness of fuel cell power plants enabled the ﬁrst aviation applications. Based on the results of conceptual design studies and a few technology demonstration projects, a widespread understanding of the importance of fuel cell power plants for near-term and future aviation applications has emerged.
Backup Power Systems for Mobile Telecommunications Telecommunication networks are a major user of backup powering systems (also termed uninterruptible power systems (UPS)) and they serve as the primary example of a fuel cell (FC) application in this article. Mobile or wireless networks are often the primary source of telecommunications especially in emerging markets and developing countries where ﬁxed line networks have not been extensively built. Customers expect to continue to use their mobile phones, even when the power grid fails.
As a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) can be started instantly at ambient temperatures and can work with air as oxidant without carbon dioxide problems, it is so far the most viable fuel cell (FC) system that has the potential to replace internal combustion engines (ICEs) and batteries for transportation applications to power cars, buses, and personal electric vehicles (PEVs). This article focuses on the application of this technology for light traction vehicles, such as scooters, bicycles, forklifts, wheelchairs, and tour carts.
This article concerns the rationale, history, principal issues, and potential of fuel cell-powered rail vehicles. Issues include fuel cell type, hydrogen storage, special factors affecting fuel cell rail, and the question of which rail applications are appropriate for hybrid powertrains. It concludes with a brief discussion of a supersonic concept vehicle, a cross between a train and an airplane that operates in a hydrogen-ﬁlled tube and levitates on a gas ﬁlm, thereby overcoming an inherent efﬁciency limitation of aircraft.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany