Fuel oil and gas production

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  • References to oil and gas production handbook, author Virgil B. Guthrie. Hopefully documents provide useful knowledge for engineering and technology students specializing in chemical industry - oil and gas.

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  • Petroleum products are everywhere around us. They appear in visible forms, such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and aircraft fuels, and in less visible forms over the entire spectrum of industry, such as automobile lubricants, greases, carbon black for truck tires, bitumen for road building, the waterproofing in house roofs, feedstock for petrochemicals, synthetic fibers, and plastics. Petroleum feedstock is used in the manufacture of white mineral oils in eye ointment, hair oils, cosmetics, petroleum solvents, and pest control sprays....

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  • In the next instant, a frightening figure surged from beneath the water. Formed of the rats’ bones, the creature stood eight feet tall, built square and broad-chested as an ape. It stood on bowed legs that were whitely visible through the murky water. Instead of two arms, the bone creature possessed four, all longer than the legs. When it closed its hands, horns formed of ribs and rats’ teeth stuck out of the creature’s fists, rendering them into morningstars for all intents and purposes. The horns looked sharp-edged, constructed for slashing as well as stabbing.

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  • As in a past decades, the world today continues to be at crossroads in terms of energy. Shortages and rising prices of fuel, accompanied by environmental damage are leading to a poor quality of life. Fossil fuel consumption is increasing, and our search for oil has led to ever deeper reserves, with its higher production costs. Rapid depletion of oil and gas are real issues affecting both current and future generations.

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  • Hydrogen and synthesis gas (syngas) are indispensable in chemical, oil, and energy industries. They are important building blocks and serve as feedstocks for the production of chemicals such as ammonia and methanol. Hydrogen is used in petroleum refi neries to produce clean transportation fuels, and its consumption is expected to increase dramatically in the near future as refi ners need to process increasingly heavier and sour crudes.

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  • The alternative fuels that are derived from non-fossil source are very promising fuels for the future. Catalytic cracking of vegetable oil sludge is an advanced method for obtaining of bio- fuels. The huge waste in the vegetable oil manufacture could be converted to bio-fuel. Cracking of vegetable oil sludge by HY catalyst using MAT5000 instrument is a precious method for studying this catalytic cracking reaction. By catalytic cracking, the LPG gas, gasoline product, LCO and HCO products are also formed of vegetable oil sludge.

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  • As early as the beginning of the 20th century Rudolf Diesel proposed vegetable oil as fuel for his engine.1 A short time later, before and during World War Two, vegetable oil was examined in “up-to-date” diesel engines. In 1940 first trials with vegetable oil methyl and ethyl esters were carried out in France and, at the same time, scientists in Belgium were using palm oil ethyl ester as a fuel for buses.2 In 1973, the oil crisis refocused attention on and interest for local energy sources.

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  • Flare gas. This is an associated gas obtained during crude oil exploration, largely consisting of methane and higher hydrocarbons. The use of flare gas—which is generally available free of charge as a waste product—ensures a fuel source for on- site power generation and, if required, the engines can also provide a heat supply for surrounding facilities. Consequently this problem gas, instead of flaring it off while causing ecological exposure, can be used economically and practically. Biogas.

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  • The increasing demand for energy worldwide, together with the depletion of crude oil reserves, environmental threats due to greenhouse gas emissions and new national and international legislation, is resulting in the imperative for petroleum-derived fuels to be complemented or substituted by biofuels. Such an alternative, renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic biofuel is biodiesel. The book “Biodiesel: Feedstocks and Processing Technologies” is intended to provide a professional look on the recent achievements and emerging trends in biodiesel production.

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  • The dramatic rise in oil prices in 2008 increased attention on the sources of imported oil, the workings of the world oil market, and the potential problems of meeting future demand for liquid fuels. Energy security concerns typically focus on the Middle East, mainly because that is where surplus oil production capacity is concentrated. But a large amount of the world’s oil and natural gas production occurs in countries outside o

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  • We’ve already made progress toward this goal – last year, America produced more oil than we had in the last seven years. We’re taking steps to encourage more offshore oil exploration and production – as long as it’s safe and responsible. And, because we know we can’t just drill our way out of our energy challenge, we’re reducing our dependence on oil by increasing our production of natural gas and biofuels, and increasing our fuel efficiency.

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  • Cogeneration is frequently defined as the sequential production of necessary heat and power (electrical or mechanical) or the recovery of low-level energy for power production. This sequential energy production yields fuel savings relative to separate energy production facilities because both the heat and power requirements are satisfied from a common/single fuel source.

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