Fungal activity

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  • The third edition of The Fungal Community has been compiled by a new set of editors. The three of us were impressed with the quality and content of the previous two editions and hope that we have matched the work of George Carroll and Don Wicklow in this new volume. The aims and objectives of this volume are explained in our introductory chapter, but in brief, we have tried to address some of the current discussions in ecology (diversity and function, scaling issues, disturbance, invasive species) from a fungal perspective.

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  • This comprehensive volume covers the major viral, bacterial and fungal diseases in fi n- and shellfi shes. It completes the three-volume series on fi sh diseases and disorders; Volume I (published in 1995) is on parasitic diseases in fi n- and shellfi shes while Volume II (published in 1998) deals with non-infectious disorders in fi nfi sh. Reviews in the three volumes are written by international authorities that are actively working in the area or have contributed greatly to our understanding of specifi c piscine diseases or disorders.

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  • Adaptive immune responses (it takes them days to respond to a primary invasion) such as infection by any pathogen, lead to production of antibodies and cell-mediated responses which recognize foreign pathogens and destroy them as a function of specific immune cell types. The response to a second round of infection is often more rapid than to the primary infection because of the activation of memory B and T cells.

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  • Integrate: Don’t treat your social media activity as something separate from your other marketing initiatives. Feature links to your social media profiles in your email signature, on your business cards, in your ads, and as a standard block of copy in your weekly HTML email newsletter. In addition, make sure that links to your educational content are featured prominently in your social media profiles and that Facebook fan page visitors and blog subscribers are offered the opportunity to subscribe to your newsletter and attend your online and offline events.

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  • One of the most awaited technologies for the preservation of tissue-engineered product is long-term unfrozen storage (more specifically, dry storage) at ambient temperature. This approach allows storage without dependence on expensive freezers or liquid nitrogen, which require daily maintenance. This “off-the-shelf” availability and low cost should facilitate the usage of tissue-engineered products. Unfortunately, this is not yet a reality.

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  • Field data are being integrated into well-developed and tested models to better understand and characterize aerosol pollution in Mexico City. The spatial, temporal, size, and chemical characteristics of specific emissions sources are needed to allow their contributions to PM concentrations to be distinguished from each other and to provide accurate inputs to air quality models.

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  • Four substrate analogs, 4-(2-naphthyloxy)-2-butyn-1-amine (1), 1,4-diamino-2-chloro-2-butene (2), 1,6-diamino-2,4hexadiyne (3), and 2-chloro-5-phthalimidopentylamine (4) have been tested as inhibitors against mammalian, plant, bacterial, and fungal copper-containing amine oxidases: bovine plasma amine oxidase (BPAO), equine plasma amine oxidase (EPAO), pea seedling amine oxidase (PSAO), Arthrobacter globiformis amine oxidase (AGAO), Escherichia coli amine oxidase (ECAO), and Pichia pastoris lysyl oxidase (PPLO).

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  • About $4 trillion is currently invested in U.S. domestic equity mutual funds, making them a fundamental part of the average U.S. investor’s overall portfolio. Since about 90% of these funds are actively managed, researchers have devoted extensive efforts in studying their performance and have found that, on average, active management underperforms passive benchmarks. For example, Wermers (2000) finds that the average U.S. domestic equity fund underperforms its overall market, size, book-to-market, and momentum benchmarks by 1.2%/year over the 1975–1994 period.

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  • Antifreeze proteins are structurally diverse polypeptides that have thermal hysteresis activity and have been discovered in many cold-adapted organ-isms. Of these, fungal antifreeze protein has been purified and partially characterized only in a species of psychrophilic basidiomycete, Typhula ishikariensis.

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  • The fungal homotetrameric flavoprotein pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox; EC catalyses the oxidation of various sugars at position C2, while, concomitantly, electrons are transferred to oxygen as well as to alternative electron acceptors (e.g. oxidized ferrocenes).

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  • Aryl-alcohol oxidase provides H2O2 for lignin biodegradation, a key pro-cess for carbon recycling in land ecosystems that is also of great biotechno-logical interest. However, little is known of the structural determinants of the catalytic activity of this fungal flavoenzyme, which oxidizes a variety of polyunsaturated alcohols.

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  • Saccharomyces cerevisiaehas been used as a model system to characterize the effect of cytochromebmutations found in fungal and oomycete plant pathogens resistant to Qo inhibitors (QoIs), including the strobilurins, now widely employed in agriculture to control such diseases. Specific residues in the Qosite of yeast cytochromebwere modified to obtain four new forms mimicking the Qobinding site of Erysiphe graminis, Venturia inaequalis, Sphaerotheca fuligi-neaandPhytophthoramegasperma.

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  • Molecular phylogeny among catalase–peroxidases, cyto-chromecperoxidases, and ascorbate peroxidases was ana-lysed. Sixty representative sequences covering all known subgroups of class I of the superfamily of bacterial, fungal, and plant heme peroxidases were selected. Each sequence analysed contained the typical peroxidase motifs evolved to bind effectively the prosthetic heme group, enabling per-oxidatic activity.

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  • Gas1p is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored plasma membrane glycoprotein ofSaccharomyces cerevisiaeand is a representative of Family GH72 of glycosidases/transgly-cosidases, which also includes proteins from human fungal pathogens. Gas1p, Phr1-2p from Candida albicansand Gel1p fromAspergillus fumigatushave been shown to be b-(1,3)-glucanosyltransferases required for proper cell wall assembly andmorphogenesis. Gas1p is organized into three modules: a catalytic domain; a cys-richdomain; andahighly O-glycosylated serine-rich region. ...

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  • Plant cell wall proteins called expansins are thought to disrupt hydrogen bonding between cell wall polysaccha-rides without hydrolyzing them. We describe here a novel gene with sequence similarity to plant expansins, isolated from the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei. The pro-tein named swollenin has an N-terminal fungal type cel-lulose binding domain connected by a linker region to the expansin-like domain.

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  • a-Sarcin, a cyclizing ribonuclease secreted by the mould Aspergillus giganteus, is one of the best characterized members of a family of fungal ribotoxins. This protein induces apoptosis in tumour cells due to its highly specific activity on ribosomes. Fungal ribotoxins display a threedimensional protein fold similar to those of a larger group of microbial noncytotoxic RNases, represented by RNases T1 and U2.

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  • Controlling communicable diseases in day care and school settings is of utmost importance. Providing a safe, comfortable, and healthy environment facilitates the educational process, encourages social development, and allows children to acquire healthy attitudes toward organized settings. However, children who are ill or feel unwell can create difficulties in group settings. An ill child often demands more attention from the teacher or caregiver and cannot fully participate in group or educational activities.

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  • Calpain 7, a mammalian ortholog of yeast Cpl1⁄Rim13 and fungal PalB, is an atypical calpain that lacks a penta-EF-hand domain. Previously, we reported that a region containing a tandem repeat of microtubule-interact-ing and transport (MIT) domains in calpain 7 interacts with a subset of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III-related proteins, suggesting involvement of calpain 7 in the ESCRT system.

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  • A new component of theb-1,6-glucanase (EC multienzymatic complex secreted by Trichoderma harzianumhas been identified and fully characterized. The protein, namely BGN16.3, is the third isozyme display-ing endo-b-1,6-glucanase activity described up to now in T. harzianum CECT 2413. BGN16.3 is an acidicb-1,6-glucanase that is specifically induced by the presence of fungal cell walls in T. harzianumgrowth media.

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  • Glycosylatedpolyenemacrolide antibiotics, as nystatins and amphotericins, are amphiphilic structures known to exert antifungal activity by disrupting the fungal cell membrane, leading to leakage of cellular materials, and cell death. This membrane disruption is strongly influenced by the presence and the exact nature of the membrane sterols.

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