How galaxies � and yet larger structures � are formed remains one of the most interesting, topical and important questions facing astrophysicists and cosmologists today. This fully updated and revised edition of The Road to Galaxy Formation draws on the most recent observation of galaxies in the early universe obtained by the very latest ground- and space-based telescopes.
The study of the formation and early evolution of stars has been an ever
growing part of astrophysical research. Traditionally, often in the shadow of
its big brothers (i.e., the study of stellar structure, stellar atmospheres and
the structure of galaxies), it has become evident that early stellar evolution
research contributes essentially to these classical fields. There are a few new
items on the list of traditional astrophysical studies, some of which are more
related to features known from the extreme late stages of stellar evolution.
In our quest to elucidate the origin of the universe and the formation of
galaxies, particularly that of the Milky Way in which we live, astounding
progress has been made in recent years through observational and theoretical
studies. Not only have gigantic surveys covering a large fraction of the sky
brought statistics enlightening evolutionary paths of galaxies, but powerful
instruments, such as radio interferometers and ground- and space-based optical/
infrared telescopes, have been able to map individual objects with high
sensitivity and spatial resolution.
Si notre connaissance de la formation des galaxies a
fait des progrès immenses ces dernières années, c’est
grâce à la puissance accrue des télescopes, qui peuvent
détecter les galaxies très lointaines, et ainsi remonter
dans le temps, pratiquement jusqu’à 95 % de l’âge de
l’Univers. Quel est le volume d’Univers qui nous est
ainsi accessible ? Il existe une limite naturelle qui est
celle de l’horizon, aux confins duquel nous remontons
Đọc kỹ đoạn văn sau và chọn phương án đúng (A hoặc B, C, D) cho mỗi câu từ 1 đến 12. Galaxies are not evenly distributed throughout the universe. A few are found alone, but almost all are grouped in formations termed galactic clusters. These formations should not be confused with stellar clusters, globular clusters of stars that exist within a galaxy.
Modern physics is confronted with a large variety of complex spatial structures;
almost every research group in physics is working with spatial data. Pattern formation
in chemical reactions, mesoscopic phases of complex fluids such as liquid
crystals or microemulsions, fluid structures on planar substrates (well-known
as water droplets on a window glass), or the large-scale distribution of galaxies
in the universe are only a few prominent examples where spatial structures
are relevant for the understanding of physical phenomena....