Gaseous fuels

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  • Gaseous fuels are generally easier to handle and burn than are liquid or solid fuels. Gaseous fossil fuels include natural gas (primarily methane and ethane) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG; primarily propane and butane). Gaseous man-made or artificial fuels are mostly derived from liquid or solid fossil fuels. Liquid fossil fuels have evolved from animal remains through

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  • This book offers reviews of state-of-the-art conversion techniques for biofuels. It focuses on the latest development for the production of liquid and gaseous biofuels that should be of interest to the chemical scientists and technologists.

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  • This book on internal combustion engines brings out few chapters on the research activities through the wide range of current engine issues. The first section groups combustion-related papers including all research areas from fuel delivery to exhaust emission phenomena. The second one deals with various problems on engine design, modeling, manufacturing, control and testing. Such structure should improve legibility of the book and helps to integrate all singular chapters as a logical whole.

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  • With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel. After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods.

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  • 3 Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquids and Gaseous Fuels Hari Bhagwan Goyal, Rakesh Chandra Saxena, and Diptendu Seal contents Abstract.................................................................................................................... 30 3.1 Introduction..................................................................................................... 30 3.2 Biomass Conversion Processes ....................................................................... 32 3.2.1 Thermochemical Conversion Processes ............................................. 32 3.2.1.

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  • Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.

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  • CHAPTER 4 6 GASEOUS FUELS Richard J. Reed North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio 46.1 46.2 INTRODUCTION NATURAL GAS 46.2.1 Uses and Distribution 46.2.2 Environmental Impact 46.2.3 Sources, Supply, and Storage 46.2.4 Types and Composition 46.2.5 Properties 46.2.6 Calorific Value or Heating Value 1505 1505 1505 1505 1507 1507 1507 46.3 1507 46.2.7 46.2.8 46.2.9 46.2.10 46.2.11 46.2.12 Net Heating Value Flame Stability Gas Gravity Wobbe Index Flame Temperature Minimum Ignition Temperature 46.2.

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  • CHAPTER 4 4 COMBUSTION Richard J. Reed North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio 44.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMBUSTION 44.1.1 Air-Fuel Ratios 44.1.2 Fuels 44.3 1 3 4 1 1431 1 3 4 3 44.4 44.5 BURNERS 1 3 4 9 44.3.1 Burners for Gaseous Fuels 1439 44.3.2 Burners for Liquid Fuels 1441 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS OXY-FUEL FIRING 1442 44.2 PURPOSES OF COMBUSTION 1435 1 4 4 7 44.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMBUSTION 44.1.1 Air-Fuel Ratios Combustion is rapid oxidation, usually for the purpose of changing chemical energy into thermal energy—heat.

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  • Unlike ozone, which has a specific chemical composition, airborne particles vary in size and composition depending on time and location. Although the components of particles may have common sources, the types and amounts of particles collected at any one time and location may be unique. To add to the problem, gaseous pollutants including ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide often are present in the atmosphere at the same time as are particles.

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  • Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years.

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  • The contributions in this book present an overview of utting edge research on natural gas which is a vital component of world’s supply of energy. Natural gas is combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases, primarily methane but also heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane and butane. Unlike other fossil fuels, natural gas is clean burning and emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the air. Therefore, it is considered as one of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources applied in variety of residential, commercial and industrial fields....

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  • Three-phase fixed-bed reactors are very often encountered in industrial applica- tions for carrying out different chemical reactions between gaseous and liquid reactants on porous catalysts, in processes such as, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, purification, the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, and in many others. These processes form the basis for production of a large variety of intermediate and ultimate products in refinery, bulk and fine chemistry, in manufacture of monomers, sol- vents, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, fuels, food additives, etc....

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  • Transportation involves the combustion of fossil fuels to produce energy translated into motion. Pollution is created from incomplete carbon reactions, unburned hydrocarbons or other elements present in the fuel or air during combustion. These processes produce pollutants of various species, including carbon monoxide, soot, various gaseous and liquid vapour hydro carbons, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, sulphate and nitrate particulates, ash and lead.

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