This first part is concerned with processes in which the kinetic behaviour of a
gaseous phase is rate-determining. The range of processes includes some which
are carried out in vacuum systems in which Knudsen or free evaporation occurs
from a condensed phase, to transport reactions where a chemical reaction
occurs between a solid and the gaseous phase to produce molecular species
containing some or all of the elements occurring in the solid phase.
This book offers reviews of state-of-the-art conversion techniques for biofuels. It focuses on the latest development for the production of liquid and gaseous biofuels that should be of interest to the chemical scientists and technologists.
Gaseous fuels are generally easier to handle and burn than are liquid or solid fuels. Gaseous fossil fuels include natural gas (primarily methane and ethane) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG; primarily propane and butane). Gaseous man-made or artificial fuels are mostly derived from liquid or solid fossil fuels. Liquid fossil fuels have evolved from animal remains through
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Bench-to-bedside review: Hydrogen sulfide – the third gaseous transmitter: applications for critical care...
With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel.
After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods.
Every day countless kilometres of steel pipelines are installed
worldwide for the most varied civil and industrial uses.
They form real networks comparable to a system of road networks,
which, although not so obvious, are definitely much more intricate and
carry fluids that have become essential for us.
To comply with technical specifications and fulfil the necessary safety
requisites, special materials and welding processes which have
evolved with the sector have been developed in recent years.
Since the Second World War, and especially since the publication of Rachel Carson’s
in 1962, there has been growing concern about contamination of the
environment by “man-made” chemicals. These chemicals may be present in industrial
and municipal effluents, in consumer or commercial products, in mine tailings,
in petroleum products, and in gaseous emissions. Some chemicals such as pesticides
may be specifically designed to kill biota present in natural or agricultural ecosystems.
They may be organic, inorganic, metallic, or radioactive in nature.
General Anesthetic Drugs
sic, an injectable anesthetic, a short-acting muscle relaxant, and a low dose of a neuroleptic. In regional anesthesia (spinal anesthesia) with a local anesthetic (p. 204), nociception is eliminated, while consciousness is preserved. This procedure, therefore, does not fall under the definition of general anesthesia. According to their mode of application, general anesthetics in the restricted sense are divided into inhalational (gaseous, volatile) and injectable agents.
Environmental toxicology is the study of the impacts of pollutants upon the
structure and function of ecological systems. For the purposes of this text, the
emphasis will be upon ecological structures, from the molecular to the individual
organism to the community and the ecosystem. The broad scope of environmental
toxicology requires a multidisciplinary approach of a variety of specialists.
Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation
of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly
coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics.
Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon
combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within
the last several years.
Today, an individual would be hard-pressed to find any science field that does not employ methods and instruments based on the use of fine focused electron and ion beams. Well instrumented and supplemented with advanced methods and techniques, SEMs provide possibilities not only of surface imaging but quantitative measurement of object topologies, local electrophysical characteristics of semiconductor structures and performing elemental analysis.
Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.
Membrane separation has developed into an important technology for separating VOCs and other gaseous air pollutants from gas streams during the past 15 years. The ﬁrst commercial application was installed in 1990, and more than 50 systems have been installed in the chemical process industry worldwide.1 The technology utilizes a polymeric membrane that is more permeable to condensable organic vapors, such as C3+ hydrocarbons and aromatics, than it is to noncondensable gases such as methane, ethane, nitrogen, and hydrogen.
The contributions in this book present an overview of utting edge research on natural gas
which is a vital component of world’s supply of energy. Natural gas is combustible mixture
of hydrocarbon gases, primarily methane but also heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such as
ethane, propane and butane. Unlike other fossil fuels, natural gas is clean burning and emits
lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the air. Therefore, it is considered as one
of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources applied in variety of residential,
commercial and industrial fields....
YẾU TỐ CƠ BẢN khí và chất gây ô nhiễm KHÍ
Các khí độc được sản xuất trong quá trình đốt nhiên liệu và các quá trình hóa học khác có thể được loại bỏ bằng cách xử lý phá hoại, phân tán pha loãng hoặc sản phẩm phụ như thu hồi. Các con đường loại bỏ lựa chọn tại thời điểm hiện tại thúc đẩy chủ yếu bởi kinh tế, nhưng áp lực công cộng và nâng cao nhận thức của các vấn đề môi trường cũng ảnh hưởng đến sự lựa chọn.
CHAPTER 4 6 GASEOUS FUELS Richard J. Reed North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio
INTRODUCTION NATURAL GAS 46.2.1 Uses and Distribution 46.2.2 Environmental Impact 46.2.3 Sources, Supply, and Storage 46.2.4 Types and Composition 46.2.5 Properties 46.2.6 Calorific Value or Heating Value
1505 1505 1505 1505 1507 1507 1507 46.3 1507
46.2.7 46.2.8 46.2.9 46.2.10 46.2.11 46.2.12
Net Heating Value Flame Stability Gas Gravity Wobbe Index Flame Temperature Minimum Ignition Temperature 46.2.