Gastrointestinal disorders

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  • Chapter 29 provides provides knowledge of abdominal and gastrointestinal disorders. Learning objectives of this chapter include: Label a diagram of the abdominal organs, describe the function of the abdominal organs, outline prehospital assessment of a patient who is complaining of abdominal pain,...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Effect of anti-IgE therapy on food allergen specific T cell responses in eosinophil associated gastrointestinal disorders...

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  • Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy This is an infrequent cause of acute visual loss, induced by the combination of severe anemia and hypotension. Cases have been reported after major blood loss during surgery, exsanguinating trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding, and renal dialysis. The fundus usually appears normal, although optic disc swelling develops if the process extends far enough anteriorly. Vision can be salvaged in some patients by prompt blood transfusion and reversal of hypotension. Optic Neuritis This is a common inflammatory disease of the optic nerve.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 51. Menstrual Disorders and Pelvic Pain Menstrual Disorders and Pelvic Pain: Introduction Menstrual dysfunction can signal an underlying abnormality that may have long-term health consequences. Although frequent or prolonged bleeding usually prompts a woman to seek medical attention, infrequent or absent bleeding may seem less troubling, and the patient may not bring it to the attention of the physician. Thus, a focused menstrual history is a critical part of every female patient encounter.

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  • Patients with leukopenias or leukocyte dysfunction often have delayed inflammatory responses. Therefore, clinical manifestations may be minimal despite overwhelming infection, and unusual infections must always be suspected. Early signs of infection demand prompt, aggressive culturing for microorganisms, use of antibiotics, and surgical drainage of abscesses. Prolonged courses of antibiotics are often required. In patients with CGD, prophylactic antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and antifungals (itraconazole) markedly diminish the frequency of life-threatening infections.

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  • Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Up to 90% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. Occasionally, hyperemesis gravidarum requires hospitalization to prevent dehydration, and sometimes parenteral nutrition is required. Crohn's disease may be associated with exacerbations in the second and third trimesters. Ulcerative colitis is associated with disease exacerbations in the first trimester and during the early postpartum period.

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  • Physiology of Circadian Rhythmicity The sleep-wake cycle is the most evident of the many 24-h rhythms in humans. Prominent daily variations also occur in endocrine, thermoregulatory, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, and neurobehavioral functions. At the molecular level, endogenous circadian rhythmicity is driven by self-sustaining transcriptional/translational feedback loops (Fig. 28-2). In evaluating a daily variation in humans, it is important to distinguish between those rhythmic components passively evoked by periodic environmental or behavioral changes (e.g.

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  • Physical Features Patients with AN typically have few physical complaints but may note cold intolerance. Gastrointestinal motility is diminished, leading to reduced gastric emptying and constipation. Some women who develop AN after menarche report that their menses ceased before significant weight loss occurred. Weight and height should be measured to allow calculation of body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Vital signs may reveal bradycardia, hypotension, and mild hypothermia. Soft, downy hair growth (lanugo) sometimes occurs, and alopecia may be seen.

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  • In 1991 I was presenter of the BBC’s Watchdog programme, married to my copresenter John Stapleton with a two-year-old son. Life was good. I had never heard of bowel cancer, had no idea that it was the second biggest cancer killer in the UK. So I had no worries that the subtle symptom I had spotted intermittently – just a bit of rectal bleeding – might be serious. When my GP reassured me that it was ‘nothing to worry about’ at my age, ‘probably piles’, I believed him. It was a terrible shock to discover nearly a year later, through my persistence, that I had advanced bowel...

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  • Table 76-1 Common Characteristics of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosaa Bulimia Nervosa Clinical Characteristics Onset Mid-adolescence Late adolescence/early adulthood Female:male 10:1 10:1 Lifetime prevalence 1% 1–3% in women Weight Markedly decreased Usually normal Menstruation Absent Usually normal Binge eating 25–50% Required diagnosis for Mortality 5% per decade Low Physical and Laboratory Findingsa Skin/extremities Lanugo Acrocyanosis Edema Cardiovascular Bradycardia Hypotension Gastrointestinal Salivary enlargement glan...

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  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in the Western world. In recent years, there have been many developments in the field of GERD. At least, all these developments have helped to find new diagnostic procedures and different treatment concepts. As well known, GERD affects patients quality of life and leads to a significant economic burden on society. Therefore, all further investigations should primary aim in an improvement of patients daily life.

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  • Such an integrative approach in basic and clinical gastroenterology seems to be essential for the pathomechanism, proper diagnosis and management of patients who suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The potential reader will not only find in this book the recent advances in the physiology and pathomechanism of GI tract disorders, but also the treatment options based on pharmacological and surgical intervention and the recent advances in the biological therapy with probiotics and prebiotics, which nowadays is a rapidly growing area of interest.

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  • This book is intended to provide an overview of the pharmacology of neurotransmitter release. Neurotransmitter release initiates synaptic transmission, the major mechanism by which neurons communicate with each other and with effector cells.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 44. Abdominal Swelling and Ascites Abdominal Swelling Abdominal swelling or distention is a common problem in clinical medicine and may be the initial manifestation of a systemic disease or of otherwise unsuspected abdominal disease. Subjective abdominal enlargement, often described as a sensation of fullness or bloating, is usually transient and is often related to a functional gastrointestinal disorder when it is not accompanied by objective physical findings of increased abdominal girth or local swelling.

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  • The term acid-peptic disorders encompasses a variety of relatively specific medical conditions in which injury by gastric acid (and activated pepsin) is thought to play an important role. These disorders include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), benign "peptic" ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, ulcers secondary to the use of conventional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and ulcers due to the rare Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

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  • (BQ) Nối tiếp nội dung của phần 1 cuốn sách, phần 2 trình bày các nội dung: Disorders of the Kidney and Urinary Tract, Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System, Rheumatology and Immunology, Endocrinology and Matabolism, Neurologic Disorders, dermatology. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết.

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  • Abdominal swelling or distention is a common problem in clinical medicine and may be the initial manifestation of a systemic disease or of otherwise unsuspected abdominal disease. Subjective abdominal enlargement, often described as a sensation of fullness or bloating, is usually transient and is often related to a functional gastrointestinal disorder when it is not accompanied by objective physical findings of increased abdominal girth or local swelling.

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  • Action cues or kinetics are body movements that convey messages. Posture, arm position, hand gestures, body movements, facial expressions, and eye contact all convey a message. The message may reflect a feeling, a mood, or an underlying physiological or psychological problem. A relaxed posture with arms at the sides conveys openness, whereas a tense posture with arms crossed may reflect anger, discomfort, or mistrust. A tense, guarded posture may also indicate pain.

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  • Menstrual dysfunction can signal an underlying abnormality that may have longterm health consequences. Although frequent or prolonged bleeding usually prompts a woman to seek medical attention, infrequent or absent bleeding may seem less troubling, and the patient may not bring it to the attention of the physician. Thus, a focused menstrual history is a critical part of every female patient encounter. Pelvic pain is a common complaint that may relate to an abnormality of the reproductive organs but may also be of gastrointestinal, urinary tract, or musculoskeletal origin.

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  • Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a heterogeneous movement disorder character-ized by progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons in substantia nigra. We have previously presented genetic evidence for the possible involvement of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADH; ALDH) by identifying genetic variants in ADH1C and ADH4 that associate with PD.

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