This report provides an overview of the statutory framework, key players, infrastructure,
resources, tools, and operations associated with enforcement and compliance of the major
pollution control laws and regulations administered by EPA. It also outlines the roles of federal
(including regional offices) and state regulators, as well as the regulated community.
Understanding the many facets of how all federal pollution control laws are enforced, and the
responsible parties involved, can be challenging.
There is a growing body of evidence which demonstrates
that following a diet that complies with the Dietary
Guidelines may reduce the risk of chronic disease.
Recently, it was reported that dietary patterns consistent
with recommended dietary guidance were associated
with a lower risk of mortality among individuals age 45
years and older in the United States.
Each basic food group5 is the major contributor of at least
one nutrient while making substantial contributions of
many other nutrients. Because each food group provides
a wide array of nutrients in substantial amounts, it is
important to include all food groups in the daily diet.
Both illustrative eating patterns include a variety of nutrien
dense foods within the major food groups.
In addition to the tax increases, a broad array
of domestic and defense-related spending cuts—
some of which are to be implemented via the
federal government’s “sequestration” process—
are scheduled to begin in 2013. (These would
impose on many programs an across-the-board
spending cut—generally between 8 percent and
10 percent—but would not directly affect most
of the major federal funding streams that flow
through the state treasury.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Use of a multi-virus array for the study of human viral and retroviral pathogens: gene expression studies and ChIP-chip analysis
To meet the emerging needs of genomics, proteomics, and the other omics,
microarrays have become unique and important tools for high-throughput
analysis of biomolecules. Microarray technology provides a highly sensitive
and precise technique for obtaining information from biological samples. It
can simultaneously handle a large number of analytes that may be processed
Ribonucleotide reduction, the unique step in the pathway to DNA synthe-sis, is catalyzed by enzymes via radical-dependent redox chemistry involv-ing an array of diverse metallocofactors. The nucleotide reduction gene
(nrdF) encoding the metallocofactor containing small subunit (R2F) of the
Corynebacterium ammoniagenesribonucleotide reductase was reintroduced
into strain C.
Wrist rests should not be needed with modern thin keyboards and
well-rounded desk edges. Anti -glare screens should be only a last
resort where the workstation cannot be arranged to avoid veiling
reflections on the VDU screen.
Just as some "ergonomic" equipment is not always necessary , the
extent of adjustments available in some products may not be
warranted. More adjustments does not necessarily mean better
ergonomics. A bewildering array of adjustment stalks now
protrudes from some "ergonomic" chairs.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Wound healing and inflammation genes revealed by array analysis of 'macrophageless' PU.1 null mice...
The Springer Handbook of Auditory Research presents a series of comprehensive
and synthetic reviews of the fundamental topics in modern auditory research. The
volumes are aimed at all individuals with interests in hearing research, including
advanced graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and clinical investigators.
The volumes are intended to introduce new investigators to important aspects
of hearing science and to help established investigators to better understand the
fundamental theories and data in fields of hearing that they may not normally
A wide array of substances derived from the diet
have been found to stimulate the development, growth
and spread of tumours in experimental animals, and to
transform normal cells into malignant ones. These are
regarded as suspected human carcinogens.
So,many dietary constituents can increase the risk of
developing cancer, but there is also accumulating evi-
dence from population as well as laboratory studies to
support an inverse relationship between regular con-
sumption of fruit and vegetables and the risk of specific
DNA chips are gaining increasing importance in different fields ranging from
medicine to analytical chemistry with applications in the latter in food safety
and food quality issues as well as in environmental protection. In the medical
field, DNA chips are frequently used in arrays for gene expression studies (e.g.
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder with involvement of multiple genes. Methods: In this study, genome-wide screening for DNA copy-number variations (CNVs) was conducted for ten pairs, a total of 20 cases, of affected siblings using oligonucleotide array-based CGH. Results: We found negative symptoms were significantly more severe (p
Many drugs have unknown, controversial or multiple mechanisms of action. Four recent ‘chemical genomic’ studies, using genome-scale collections of yeast gene deletions that were either arrayed or barcoded, have presented complementary approaches to identifying gene-drug and pathwaydrug interactions.
The fact that much of modern drug research is target-oriented obscures the long history during which the effects of drugs were discovered prior to identification of their targets. There remain many...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (~22 nucleotides) that regulate gene expression by cleaving mRNAs or inhibiting translation. The baboon is a well-characterized cardiovascular disease model; however, no baboon miRNAs have been identified. Evidence indicates that the baboon and human genomes are highly conserved; based on this conservation, we hypothesized that comparative genomic methods could be used to identify baboon miRNAs.
A cDNA array experiment. RNA is prepared from cells, reverse transcribed to cDNA, and labeled with fluorescent dyes (typically green for normal cells and red for cancer cells). The fluorescent probes are mixed and hybridized to the cDNA array. Each spot on the array is a cDNA fragment that represents a different gene. The image is then captured with a fluorescence camera; red spots indicate higher expression in tumor compared with reference while green spots represent the opposite. Yellow signals indicate equal expression levels in normal and tumor specimens.
Several molecular changes occur following axotomy, such as gene up-regulation and down-regulation. In our previous study using Affymetrix arrays, it was found that after the axotomy of sciatic nerve, there were many novel genes with significant expression changes. Among them, neuronatin (Nnat) was the one which expression was significantly up-regulated. Nnat was identified as a gene selectively expressed in neonatal brains and markedly reduced in adult brains.
There have been great strides in using positional cloning to successfully identify the underlying basis of many Mendelian
disorders of children. The severity of even these disorders, however, is greatly affected by genetic modifiers and gene-
environment interactions. The molecular pathogenesis of many more complex disorders remains unexplained due to the
often complex genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions involved in their etiology. However, there is reason for
The unique ability of mammals to detect and discriminate between thou-sands of different odorant molecules is governed by the diverse array of
olfactory receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons in the nasal
epithelium. Olfactory receptors consist of seven transmembrane domain G
protein-coupled receptors and comprise the largest gene superfamily in
the mammalian genome.
TheCPBgenes of the protozoan parasiteLeishmania mex-icana encode stage-regulated cathepsin L-like cysteine pro-teases that are important virulence factors and are in a
tandem array of 19 genes. In this study, we have compared
the substrate preferences of two CPB isoforms, CPB2.8 and
CPB3, and a H84Y mutant of the latter enzyme, to analyse
the roles played by the few amino acid differences between
the isoenzymes in determining substrate specificity. CPB3
differs fromCPB2.8 at just three residues (N60D,D61Nand
D64S) in the mature domain. ...