General biological materials

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  • from the Latin cella, meaning storeroom or chamber. It was first used in biology in 1665 by the English botanist Robert Hooke to describe the individual units of the honeycomb-like structure he observed in cork under a compound microscope. The “cells” Hooke observed were actually the empty lumens of dead cells surrounded by cell walls, but the term is an apt one because cells are the basic building blocks that define plant structure. This book will emphasize the physi

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  • In this Unit, you will discover What molecules make up cells How the cell membrane separates cells from their external environment but allows substances into and out of the cell What special functions cell structures have and how these contribute to keeping an organism alive What processes in cells capture and release the energy needed for survival and how we harness these processes Cellular Functions It has been said that we are made of the stuff of stars. What do you think this means? The pine wood cells pictured on the right and all other organisms on Earth are made mostly of only...

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  • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. A protein is simply a polypeptide composed of amino acids linked by a peptide bond, and the term generally, but not always, refers to the folded conformation. To understand how an enzyme functions, including its binding and functional properties, it is necessary to know the properties of the amino acids and how the amino acids are linked together, including the torsion angles of the bonds and the space occupied, and the interactions of the atoms leading to the final conformations of the folded protein.

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  • Biomimetics is the science of emulating nature’s design. In nature, living organisms synthesize mineralized tissues and this process of biomineralization is under strict biological control. It involves the interactions of several biological macromolecules among themselves and with the mineral components. Generally, natures design principles are based on a “Bott om-Up” strategy. Such processes lead to the formation of hierarchically structured organic-inorganic composites with mechanical properties optimized for a given function.

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  • This thoroughly revised and updated new edition provides outstanding coverage of the most important aspects of immunology. Assuming no previous knowledge of the subject, the book gives step-by-step detail on topics such as antigens, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, reproductive immunity and immunodeficiency. There is an accompanying website with supplementary material.

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  • As far as the MDGs are concerned, only 16 percent of countries are on track to meet the child mortality target and, on average, the poorest fifth of the population saw child mortality falling half as fast as the general population (Wagstaff and Claeson 2003). Though not one sub-Saharan African country is on track to meet the child mortality target, overall progress toward reducing child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa was faster in the 1990s than the 1980s. In the developing world overall, most countries are on track to meet the child health goals...

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  • · Behavioural economics has been directed more to explaining choices than to changing them. Even if there is a sense in which people can be shown to be making poor decisions it is of course debatable whether it is appropriate to try to intervene. A relatively small literature has looked at remedies for various cognitive biases. Little of this is specifically applied to personal finance. · A number of the debiasing techniques in the literature involve encouraging thinking that is more critical. “Consider the opposite” encourages people to think why they may be wrong.

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  • Of reported 2003-2007 structure fires in health care properties, an estimated 57% showed sprinklers present, with higher percentages for hospitals (71%) and nursing homes (65%) and a much lower percentage for clinics and doctor’s offices (28%). Sprinklers were also reported as present in half or more of all reported fires in laboratories (60%), manufacturing facilities (52%), theaters (50%), and prisons and jails (50%). In every other property use, more than half of all reported fires had no sprinklers.

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  • Generally, a process is defined as a sequence of events that transforms the biological materials of food products, via biochemical changes, into stable forms with added value. This can create new products or modify existing ones. Process design refers to the design of food processes and manufacturing methods, while plant design refers to the design of the whole processing plant. The processing of food is no longer as simple or straightforward as in the past. Food process design is an interdisciplinary science that is highly regarded by the food industry.

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  • Generally, a process is defi ned as a sequence of events that transforms the biological materials of food products, via biochemical changes, into stable forms with added value. This can create new products or modify existing ones. Process design refers to the design of food processes and manufacturing methods, while plant design refers to the design of the whole processing plant. The processing of food is no longer as simple or straightforward as in the past. Food process design is an interdisciplinary science that is highly regarded by the food industry.

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  • The second shift is methodological in nature. Until recently only two strategies were available for studying the biological mecha- nisms underlying artistic appreciation and creation: first, making theoretical conjectures based on general understanding of brain structure and function; and second, single case-studies of brain injuries affecting art-related activities. The former produced theo- ries that often went untested (and were sometimes untestable), while the latter generated accounts that were often anecdotal, incomplete and difficult to interpret.

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  • Typically the processes are adapted from wood processing which benefit from the larger mill size (Paper I). However, concerns associated with the local availability of non-wood raw material force pulp mills to remain small and thus lead to the need for processes to be as simple as possible in order to be competitive unless very valuable by-products can also be extracted. The benefits of utilising agro-fibres are their generally lower lignin content compared with woods (Grant 1958, Hurter 1988).

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  • Sensors are still some time away from actual mass fabrication and use. Current smartsensor prototypes, such as the Berkeley Renee Mote, have a larger footprint and are generally restricted to the following sensor types: accelerometers, microphones, light, motion and magnetometers. We envision a design inclusive of these sensors types; however, our proposed application assumes a (not so) futuristic scenario that include sensors that test for nitrates (explosives), chemical toxins, biological toxins and radiation.

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  • Forensic dentistry, like all the forensic sciences, has come a long way since the publication of the last textbook on forensic dentistry. The editors would like to thank the many students and other interested individuals who, over the years, have asked questions that have stimulated some of the answers found in this text. We appreciate the opportunity to share this material and have assembled, we think, an outstanding list of contributors to this topic of forensic dentistry.

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  • The University of Kentucky owns its name and all trademarks. Trademarks include any logo, signature, symbol, mark, seal, nickname, letters, word or derivative that can be associated with UK and can be distinguished from those of other institutions or entities. UK protects and enhances its reputation by assuring that its trademarks appear only on appropriate materials or quality products. UK established a Trademark Licensing Program in 1984. Licensed manufacturers pay the University a royalty on all products produced. These revenues help fund the debt service on UK’s William T.

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  • It is generally agreed that abuse of older people is either an act of commission or of omission (in which case it is usually described as ‘‘neglect’’), and that it may be either intentional or unintentional. The abuse may be of a physical nature, it may be psychological (involving emotional or verbal aggression), or it may involve financial or other material maltreatment. Regardless of the type of abuse, it will certainly result in unnecessary suffering, injury or pain, the loss or violation of human rights, and a decreased quality of life for the older person (4).

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  • Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are macromolecular assemblies used by bacteria to transport material across their membranes. T4SS are generally composed of a set of twelve proteins (VirB1–11 and VirD4). This repre-sents a dynamic machine powered by three ATPases.

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  • Since its first implementation by Lauterbur [1], Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become an important noninvasive imaging modality. MRI has found a number of applications in the fields of biology, engineering, and material science. Because it provides unique contrast between soft tissues (which is generally superior to that of CT) and high spatial resolution, MRI has revolutionized diagnostic imaging in medical science. An important advantage of diagnostic MRI as compared to CT is that the former does not use ionizing radiation....

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  • The study of the neurosciences has undergone remarkable growth over the past two decades. To a large extent, such advancements have been made possible through the development of new methodologies, especially in the fields of neuropharmacology, molecular biology, and neuroanatomy. Neuroscience courses presented in medical schools and related schools of health professions generally are unable to cover all the material that has evolved in recent years.

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  • The New Biology set consists of the following six volumes: The Cell, Animal Cloning, Stem Cell Research, Gene Therapy, Cancer, and Aging. The set is intended primarily for middle and high school students, but it is also appropriate for first-year university students and the general public. In writing this set, I have tried to balance the need for a comprehensive presentation of the material, covering many complex fields, against the danger of burying—and thereby losing—young students under a mountain of detail.

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