General existence

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  • IN the last Lecture I endeavoured to prove to you that, while, as a general rule, organic beings tend to reproduce their kind, there is in them, also, a constantly recurring tendency to vary--to vary to a greater or to a less extent. Such a variety, I pointed out to you, might arise from causes which we do not understand; we therefore called it spontaneous; and it might come into existence as a definite and marked thing, without any gradations between itself and the form which preceded it. I further pointed out, that such a variety having once arisen, might be perpetuated to some extent,...

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  • This paper first presents a theoretical interpretation of the translation process. It then analyzes existing machine-translation research strategies and points out that some of the generally accepted principles of these strategies are not optimal. Finally, an alternative strategy is proposed, based on the author's theoretical position and research results.

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  • If we take an existing supervised NLP system, a simple and general way to improve accuracy is to use unsupervised word representations as extra word features. We evaluate Brown clusters, Collobert and Weston (2008) embeddings, and HLBL (Mnih & Hinton, 2009) embeddings of words on both NER and chunking. We use near state-of-the-art supervised baselines, and find that each of the three word representations improves the accuracy of these baselines.

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  • Existing work in the extraction of commonsense knowledge from text has been primarily restricted to factoids that serve as statements about what may possibly obtain in the world. We present an approach to deriving stronger, more general claims by abstracting over large sets of factoids. Our goal is to coalesce the observed nominals for a given predicate argument into a few predominant types, obtained as WordNet synsets. The results can be construed as generically quantified sentences restricting the semantic type of an argument position of a predicate....

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  • We show how techniques known from generMized LR parsing can be applied to leftcorner parsing. The ~esulting parsing algorithm for context-free grammars has some advantages over generalized LR parsing: the sizes and generation times of the parsers are smaller, the produced output is more compact, and the basic parsing technique can more easily be adapted to arbitrary context-free grammars. The algorithm can be seen as an optimization of algorithms known from existing literature.

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  • Research objective: The thesis is devoted to extend some results on the existence of fixed points in metric spaces to spaces with uniform structure. We also considered the existence of solutions of some classes of integral equations with unbounded deviation, which we can not apply fixed point theorems in metric spaces. The thesis can be a reference for under graduated students, master students and Ph.D students in analysis major in general, and the fixed point theory and applications in particular.

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  • An origin of these algorithms is found in the Darwian principles of natural selection (Darwin, 1859). In accordance with these principles, only the fittest individuals can survive in the struggle for existence and reproduce their good characteristics into next generation. As illustrated in Fig. 1, evolutionary algorithms operate with the population of solutions. At first, the solution needs to be defined within an evolutionary algorithm. Usually, this definition cannot be described in the original problemcontext directly....

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  • What this book is about and how it can be used: The existence of words is usually taken for granted by the speakers of a language. To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows thousands of words, and new words enter our minds and our language on a daily basis. This book is about words. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. words that are composed of more than one meaningful element....

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  • In this chapter we investigate a general optimization problem in a real normed space. For such a problem we present assumptions under which at least one minimal point exists. Moreover, we formulate simple statements on the set of minimal points. Finally the existence theorems obtained are applied to approximation and optimal control problems.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học được đăng trên tạp chí toán học quốc tế đề tài: Existence and convergence theorems for the new system of generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

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  • Two centuries ago, in his celebrated work Disquisitiones Arithmeticae of 1801, Gauss laid down the beautiful law of composition of integral binary quadratic forms which would play such a critical role in number theory in the decades to follow. Even today, two centuries later, this law of composition still remains one of the primary tools for understanding and computing with the class groups of quadratic orders. It is hence only natural to ask whether higher analogues of this composition law exist that could shed light on the structure of other algebraic number rings and fields. ...

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  • Given a compact four dimensional manifold, we prove existence of conformal metrics with constant Q-curvature under generic assumptions. The problem amounts to solving a fourth-order nonlinear elliptic equation with variational structure. Since the corresponding Euler functional is in general unbounded from above and from below, we employ topological methods and min-max schemes, jointly with the compactness result of [35]. 1.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article On the Existence Result for System of Generalized Strong Vector Quasiequilibrium Problems Somyot Plubtieng and Kanokwan Sitthithakerngkiet

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Existence and Stability of Antiperiodic Solution for a Class of Generalized Neural Networks with Impulses and Arbitrary Delays on Time Scales

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  • GIS has been coming of age. Millions of people use one GIS or another every day, and with the advent of Web 2.0 we are promised GIS functionality on virtually every desktop and web-enabled cellphone. GIS knowledge, once restricted to a few insiders working with minicomputers that, as a category, don’t exist any more, has proliferated and is bestowed on students at just about every university and increasingly in community colleges and secondary schools.

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  • This book is primarily aimed at undergraduate students undertaking scientific research projects as part of a programme in medicine, nursing and midwifery, subjects allied to health and biological sciences, although it is generally applicable to all project work. It will also be useful to professionals undergoing continuing professional development (CPD) or changing to study at MSc masters level and who need revision on scientific research methods.

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  • The question of the Spanish succession. 196. The king of Spain, Charles II, was childless and brotherless, and Europe had long been discussing what would become of his vast realms when his sickly existence should come to an end. Louis had married one of his sisters, and the emperor, Leopold I, another, and these two ambitious rulers had been considering for some time how they might divide the Spanish possessions between the Bourbons and the Hapsburgs. But when Charles II died, in 1700, it was discovered that he had left a will in which he made Louis' younger grandson,...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Existence and iterative approximation for generalized equilibrium problems for a countable family of nonexpansive mappings in banach spaces

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Existence Result of Generalized Vector Quasiequilibrium Problems in Locally G-Convex Spaces

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Existence of Positive Solutions in Generalized Boundary Value Problem for p-Laplacian

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