General existence

IN the last Lecture I endeavoured to prove to you that, while, as a general rule, organic beings tend to reproduce their kind, there is in them, also, a constantly recurring tendency to varyto vary to a greater or to a less extent. Such a variety, I pointed out to you, might arise from causes which we do not understand; we therefore called it spontaneous; and it might come into existence as a definite and marked thing, without any gradations between itself and the form which preceded it. I further pointed out, that such a variety having once arisen, might be perpetuated to some extent,...
14p chonguoinoiay 26022013 19 2 Download

This paper first presents a theoretical interpretation of the translation process. It then analyzes existing machinetranslation research strategies and points out that some of the generally accepted principles of these strategies are not optimal. Finally, an alternative strategy is proposed, based on the author's theoretical position and research results.
8p nghetay_1 06042013 15 2 Download

If we take an existing supervised NLP system, a simple and general way to improve accuracy is to use unsupervised word representations as extra word features. We evaluate Brown clusters, Collobert and Weston (2008) embeddings, and HLBL (Mnih & Hinton, 2009) embeddings of words on both NER and chunking. We use near stateoftheart supervised baselines, and ﬁnd that each of the three word representations improves the accuracy of these baselines.
11p hongdo_1 12042013 20 2 Download

Existing work in the extraction of commonsense knowledge from text has been primarily restricted to factoids that serve as statements about what may possibly obtain in the world. We present an approach to deriving stronger, more general claims by abstracting over large sets of factoids. Our goal is to coalesce the observed nominals for a given predicate argument into a few predominant types, obtained as WordNet synsets. The results can be construed as generically quantiﬁed sentences restricting the semantic type of an argument position of a predicate....
9p bunthai_1 06052013 23 2 Download

We show how techniques known from generMized LR parsing can be applied to leftcorner parsing. The ~esulting parsing algorithm for contextfree grammars has some advantages over generalized LR parsing: the sizes and generation times of the parsers are smaller, the produced output is more compact, and the basic parsing technique can more easily be adapted to arbitrary contextfree grammars. The algorithm can be seen as an optimization of algorithms known from existing literature.
10p buncha_1 08052013 18 1 Download

An origin of these algorithms is found in the Darwian principles of natural selection (Darwin, 1859). In accordance with these principles, only the ﬁttest individuals can survive in the struggle for existence and reproduce their good characteristics into next generation. As illustrated in Fig. 1, evolutionary algorithms operate with the population of solutions. At ﬁrst, the solution needs to be deﬁned within an evolutionary algorithm. Usually, this deﬁnition cannot be described in the original problemcontext directly....
120p contentnew 10042012 265 179 Download

What this book is about and how it can be used: The existence of words is usually taken for granted by the speakers of a language. To speak and understand a language means  among many other things  knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows thousands of words, and new words enter our minds and our language on a daily basis. This book is about words. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. words that are composed of more than one meaningful element....
264p cuonglong12a 03062010 315 130 Download

Đề tài " Higher composition laws I: A new view on Gauss composition, and quadratic generalizations "
Two centuries ago, in his celebrated work Disquisitiones Arithmeticae of 1801, Gauss laid down the beautiful law of composition of integral binary quadratic forms which would play such a critical role in number theory in the decades to follow. Even today, two centuries later, this law of composition still remains one of the primary tools for understanding and computing with the class groups of quadratic orders. It is hence only natural to ask whether higher analogues of this composition law exist that could shed light on the structure of other algebraic number rings and ﬁelds. ...
35p tuanloccuoi 04012013 21 6 Download

Given a compact four dimensional manifold, we prove existence of conformal metrics with constant Qcurvature under generic assumptions. The problem amounts to solving a fourthorder nonlinear elliptic equation with variational structure. Since the corresponding Euler functional is in general unbounded from above and from below, we employ topological methods and minmax schemes, jointly with the compactness result of [35]. 1.
48p dontetvui 17012013 30 6 Download

In this chapter we investigate a general optimization problem in a real normed space. For such a problem we present assumptions under which at least one minimal point exists. Moreover, we formulate simple statements on the set of minimal points. Finally the existence theorems obtained are applied to approximation and optimal control problems.
24p yeuthuong 11032011 41 6 Download

Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học được đăng trên tạp chí toán học quốc tế đề tài: Existence and convergence theorems for the new system of generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces
25p sting03 04022012 28 6 Download

Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article On the Existence Result for System of Generalized Strong Vector Quasiequilibrium Problems Somyot Plubtieng and Kanokwan Sitthithakerngkiet
9p sting05 10022012 31 5 Download

Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Existence and Stability of Antiperiodic Solution for a Class of Generalized Neural Networks with Impulses and Arbitrary Delays on Time Scales
19p dauphong14 11022012 33 5 Download

GIS has been coming of age. Millions of people use one GIS or another every day, and with the advent of Web 2.0 we are promised GIS functionality on virtually every desktop and webenabled cellphone. GIS knowledge, once restricted to a few insiders working with minicomputers that, as a category, don’t exist any more, has proliferated and is bestowed on students at just about every university and increasingly in community colleges and secondary schools.
121p tailieuvip13 19072012 30 5 Download

This book is primarily aimed at undergraduate students undertaking scientific research projects as part of a programme in medicine, nursing and midwifery, subjects allied to health and biological sciences, although it is generally applicable to all project work. It will also be useful to professionals undergoing continuing professional development (CPD) or changing to study at MSc masters level and who need revision on scientific research methods.
51p tuanloc_do 04122012 36 5 Download

The question of the Spanish succession. 196. The king of Spain, Charles II, was childless and brotherless, and Europe had long been discussing what would become of his vast realms when his sickly existence should come to an end. Louis had married one of his sisters, and the emperor, Leopold I, another, and these two ambitious rulers had been considering for some time how they might divide the Spanish possessions between the Bourbons and the Hapsburgs. But when Charles II died, in 1700, it was discovered that he had left a will in which he made Louis' younger grandson,...
340p nguyenhuucanh1212 23012013 32 5 Download

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) or multiple personality disorder is assumed to have its onset in childhood, but it is usually diagnosed in the fourth decade. It affects preponderantly women and typically runs a chronic, waxing and waning course. Comorbidities with other conditions (such as mood disorders and substance abuse) and its plethora of clinical manifestations may hinder timely diagnosing.
418p wawawawawa 27072012 72 4 Download

In 1998, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation (CSMTP) and charged it with identifying critical issues in existing practices and policies for K12 teacher preparation in science and mathematics. In its Statement of Task, the NRC’s Governing Board also asked the committee to identify recommendations from professional organizations regarding teacher preparation and the quality of the K12 teaching of science and mathematics and to examine relevant research.
232p camchuong_1 08122012 24 4 Download

The perception of threat, or actual occurrence of conflict, is necessary for the initiation of conflict prevention or management measures, and hence it is essential to address the concept of conflict before exploring how to prevent and manage such occurrences. The first step is to understand what a conflict is made up by exactly. The starting point for this paper is the traditional definitions of conflicts (presented below), according to which a conflict is the result of opposing interests involving scarce resources, goal divergence and frustration.
57p tainhacmienphi 25022013 14 4 Download

Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học được đăng trên tạp chí toán học quốc tế đề tài: Existence of solutions of a new system of generalized variational inequalities in Banach spaces
21p sting03 04022012 24 3 Download