Xem 1-20 trên 485 kết quả General language
  • Insights from multiple disciplines provides the foundation for the model of language in social context used in this study. We begin by delineating the central questions animating this project, and then proceed to locate these questions within frameworks provided by previous scholarship.English is a language of the western branch of the German language group in the Indo-European), were imported to England by the language invasion of many people in the 6th century.

    pdf327p thuthuy 28-07-2009 214 102   Download

  • a test specifically designed for health professionals and which focuses on the communicative tasks facing health professionals in their workplace; or (2) the general training module of IELTS (International English Language Testing System),

    pdf23p ngoclinhbiology 05-06-2010 186 83   Download

  • Communication in general is process of sending and receiving messages that enables humans to share knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Although we usually identify communication with speech, communication is composed of two dimensions - verbal and nonverbal.

    ppt26p quocnamdhnl 20-12-2010 165 81   Download

  • A formal language: Is an abstraction of the general characteristics of programming languages. Consists of a set of symbols and some formation rules by which these symbols can be combined into sentences. Accepts input, produces output, may have some temporary storage, and can make decisions in transforming the input into the output.

    ppt34p iamok147 10-03-2011 168 74   Download

  • ava™'s growth over the last five years has been nothing short of phenomenal. Given Java's rapid rise to prominence and the general interest in networking, it's a little surprising that network programming in Java...

    pdf5p stumble 21-05-2009 94 18   Download

  • phonetic changes, for example, includes things that have been said before, and perhaps more definitively; but, aside from the fact that this part contains many valuable and original details, even a superficial reading will show to what extent its omission would detract from an understanding of the principles upon which F. de Saussure erects his system of static linguistics. We are aware of our responsibility to our critics. We are also aware of our responsibility to the author, who probably would not have authorized the publication of these pages.

    pdf39p chieu_mua 22-08-2012 45 13   Download

  • In effective English language arts classrooms at all grade levels, students are actively engaged in reading a variety of literary and non-literary texts. By reading imaginative, expository, and informational texts of increasing complexity, students gain an understanding of the elements and structure of different genres. The standards of this strand outline the reading skills and strategies as well as the literary concepts and vocabulary that enable students to comprehend and appreciate high quality reading materials. General Standards 7 and 8 outline basic reading competencies.

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  • When studying in Australia, international students in general and Vietnamese students in particular meet many difficulties, one of which is writing academis essays/assignments in English. The current case study, applying the cognitivist view, aims at exploring the problems as well as the process of writing academic assignments of a particular Vietnamese student studying at an Australian university. Based on the coding scheme applied by Cumming [1989] and Bosher [1998], the study specifically addresses three major questions: ...

    pdf14p tuanlocmuido 14-12-2012 43 9   Download

  • Testing ESL Pragmatics Development and Validation of a Web-Based Assessment Battery Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2005. XIII, 156 pp., 43 tables, 8 graphs ISBN 3-631-52836-1 / US-ISBN 0-8204-7343-X · pb. € 39.– Although second language learners’ pragmatic competence (their ability to use language in context) is an essential part of their general communicative competence, it has not been a part of second language tests. This book helps fill this gap by describing the development and validation of a web-based test of ESL pragma-linguistics.

    pdf2p agenes 07-04-2013 41 8   Download

  • Learn to build configuration file readers, data readers, model-driven code generators, source-to-source translators, source analyzers, and interpreters. You don't need a background in computer science--ANTLR creator Terence Parr demystifies language implementation by breaking it down into the most common design patterns. Pattern by pattern, you'll learn the key skills you need to implement your own computer languages.

    pdf389p hoa_can 29-01-2013 34 7   Download

  • This paper reports the on-going research of a thesis project investigating a computational model of early language acquisition. The model discovers word-like units from crossmodal input data and builds continuously evolving internal representations within a cognitive model of memory. Current cognitive theories suggest that young infants employ general statistical mechanisms that exploit the statistical regularities within their environment to acquire language skills.

    pdf9p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 21 4   Download

  • This paper presents an exponential model for translation into highly inflected languages which can be scaled to very large datasets. As in other recent proposals, it predicts targetside phrases and can be conditioned on sourceside context. However, crucially for the task of modeling morphological generalizations, it estimates feature parameters from the entire training set rather than as a collection of separate classifiers.

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  • In the face of sparsity, statistical models are often interpolated with lower order (backoff) models, particularly in Language Modeling. In this paper, we argue that there is a relation between the higher order and the backoff model that must be satisfied in order for the interpolation to be effective. We show that in n-gram models, the relation is trivially held, but in models that allow arbitrary clustering of context (such as decision tree models), this relation is generally not satisfied. ...

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  • Event related potentials (ERP) corresponding to stimuli in electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to detect the intent of a person for brain computer interfaces (BCI). This paradigm is widely used to build letter-byletter text input systems using BCI. Nevertheless using a BCI-typewriter depending only on EEG responses will not be sufficiently accurate for single-trial operation in general, and existing systems utilize many-trial schemes to achieve accuracy at the cost of speed.

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  • Computational linguistics is generally considered to be the branch of engineering that uses computers to do useful things with linguistic signals, but it can also be viewed as an extended test of computational theories of human cognition; it is this latter perspective that psychologists find most interesting. Language provides a critical test for the hypothesis that physical symbol systems are adequate to perform all human cognitive functions.

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  • Machine learning has become the dominant approach to building natural-language processing systems. However, current approaches generally require a great deal of laboriously constructed humanannotated training data. Ideally, a computer would be able to acquire language like a child by being exposed to linguistic input in the context of a relevant but ambiguous perceptual environment.

    pdf1p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 21 3   Download

  • In this paper, we address this issue in providing just such an architectural framework by using the 3APL agent programming language as a starting point for identification and specification of more general individual agent components. This provides three additional benefits: it moves the work further down the road of implementation, contributes to a growing library of agent techniques and features, and allows a detailed comparison of different agent-based systems specified in similar ways.

    pdf5p namdmcist 08-07-2015 13 3   Download

  • Building on earlier work that integrates different factors in language modeling, we view (i) backing off to a shorter history and (ii) class-based generalization as two complementary mechanisms of using a larger equivalence class for prediction when the default equivalence class is too small for reliable estimation. This view entails that the classes in a language model should be learned from rare events only and should be preferably applied to rare events.

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  • Statistical language modeling (SLM) has been used in many different domains for decades and has also been applied to information retrieval (IR) recently. Documents retrieved using this approach are ranked according their probability of generating the given query. In this paper, we present a novel approach that employs the generalized Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to improve language models by representing their parameters as observation probabilities of Hidden Markov Models (HMM).

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  • This paper describes an all level approach on statistical natural language translation (SNLT). W i t h o u t any predefined knowledge the system learns a statistical translation lexicon (STL), word classes (WCs) and translation rules (TRs) from a parallel corpus thereby producing a generalized form of a word alignment (WA). The translation process itself is realized as a beam search.

    pdf5p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 15 2   Download

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