Ebook IELTS academic & general task 2: How to write at a band 9 level, this book has been written to provide the IELTS student with a brief summary outlining how to write an effective essay in the Task 2 portion of the Academic and General IELTS exams. It is hoped that this book acts as a supplement to the student’s repertoire of IELTS writing resources and not the student’s sole source of guidance for their studies in essay writing.
Since the publication of G. P. Lilley’s reference work Information Sources in
Agriculture and Food Science in 1981, we have been witness to incredible
changes both in the area of agricultural research and in our ability to disseminate
the results of that research. Advances have been made in the areas of plant and
animal genetics, in animal and human nutrition and health, and in our understanding
of the effects of human and climatic actions on the land and its natural resources.
This paper presents a general-purpose open source package for recognizing Textual Entailment. The system implements a collection of algorithms, providing a conﬁgurable framework to quickly set up a working environment to experiment with the RTE task. Fast prototyping of new solutions is also allowed by the possibility to extend its modular architecture. We present the tool as a useful resource to approach the Textual Entailment problem, as an instrument for didactic purposes, and as an opportunity to create a collaborative environment to promote research in the ﬁeld. ...
To address the parse error issue for tree-tostring translation, this paper proposes a similarity-based decoding generation (SDG) solution by reconstructing similar source parse trees for decoding at the decoding time instead of taking multiple source parse trees as input for decoding. Experiments on Chinese-English translation demonstrated that our approach can achieve a significant improvement over the standard method, and has little impact on decoding speed in practice.
Probabilistic accounts of language processing can be psychologically tested by comparing word-reading times (RT) to the conditional word probabilities estimated by language models. Using surprisal as a linking function, a signiﬁcant correlation between unlexicalized surprisal and RT has been reported (e.g., Demberg and Keller, 2008), but success using lexicalized models has been limited. In this study, phrase structure grammars and recurrent neural networks estimated both lexicalized and unlexicalized surprisal for words of independent sentences from narrative sources. ...
In this paper, we present a new collection of open-source software libraries that provides command line binary utilities and library classes and functions for compiling regular expression and context-sensitive rewrite rules into ﬁnite-state transducers, and for n-gram language modeling. The OpenGrm libraries use the OpenFst library to provide an efﬁcient encoding of grammars and general algorithms for building, modifying and applying models.
A Named Entity Recognizer (NER) generally has worse performance on machine translated text, because of the poor syntax of the MT output and other errors in the translation. As some tagging distinctions are clearer in the source, and some in the target, we tried to integrate the tag information from both source and target to improve target language tagging performance, especially recall.
This paper describes a general approach to the design of natural language interfaces that has evolved during the development of DATALOG, an English database query system based on Cascaded ATN grammar. By providing separate representation schemes for linguistic knowledge, general world knowledge, and application domain knowledge, DATALOG achieves a high degree of portability and extendability.
We present REGULUS, an Open Source environment which compiles typed unification grammars into context free grammar language models compatible with the Nuance Toolkit. The environment includes a large general unification grammar of English and corpus-based tools for creating efficient domainspecific recognisers from it. We will demo applications built using the system, including a speech translator and a command and control system for a simulated robotic domain, and show how the development environment can be used to edit and extend them. ...
Chapter 11 - Sources of long-term finance: Debt. In this chapter, you will learn: Explain the general characteristics of long-term debt, identify and explain the features of the main types of long-term loans, identify and explain the features of the main types of marketable long-term debt securities,...
There is something special about teaching children. Jayne Moon's academic rigour and classroom experience inform every page of this book - but what shines through is a sense of the privilege it is to participate in someone's learning at this age in their lives. This is a practical handbook with lots of teaching suggestions - but it is also a source of inspiration.
OpenVPN is an open source software application that implements virtual private network (VPN) techniques for creating secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. It uses a custom security protocol that utilizes SSL/TLS for key exchange. It is capable of traversing network address translators (NATs) and firewalls. It was written by James Yonan and is published under the GNU General Public License (GPL)
The tenth edition of Accountants’ Handbook has the same goal as the first edition, written over
79 years ago: to provide in a single reference source answers to all reasonable questions on accounting
and financial reporting that might be asked by accountants, auditors, executives,
bankers, lawyers, financial analysts, and other preparers and users of accounting information.
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade came into force on 1
January 1948. This booklet contains the complete text of the General
Agreement together with all amendments which have become effective
since its entry into force. The text is identical to that published, since 1969,
as Volume IV in the series Basic Instruments and Selected Documents. A
guide to the legal sources of the provisions of the Agreement is provided
in an appendix.
Business and commercial enterprise takes place within a legal context and, in the final
analysis, is governed and regulated by law. One of the problems facing the person
studying business activity, and the one that is specifically addressed in this book, is
the fact that business enterprise takes place within a general and wide-ranging legal
environment, but the student is required to have more than a passing knowledge of
the legal rules and procedures which impact on business activity.
Industrial Safety and Health for Goods and Materials Servicesfocuses on the safety requirements of the wholesale and retail trades, including warehousing. This detailed text describes the hazards associated with chemicals, compressed gases, and fire.
(BQ) Ebook CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2015 is the 54th edition of this single-source reference for practitio-ners in both hospital and ambulatory settings. The book emphasizes the practical features of clinical diagnosis and patient management in all fields of internal medicine and in specialties of interest to primary care practitioners and to subspecial-ists who provide general car.
SIP’s popularity has grown enormously over the past few years. A big boost in support came in November
2000, with the acceptance of SIP by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). 3GPP is composed of standards
organizations in China, Europe, Japan, North America and South Korea, and is dedicated to the proliferation
of a third-generation wireless global standard. More specifically, this organization focuses on the development
of standards for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).
European Union (EU) environmental legislation has developed over the last
30 years and comprises today some 300 legal acts and a large number of
other policy documents of relevance for EU environmental policy. Section
1.2.1 of this chapter gives a general introduction to the EU forms of legislation
and the principles of the EU environmental policy. The legislation related to
the environmental aspects of textile processes in general, primarily the
emissions to water and air, is discussed in sections 1.2 to 1.6....
THE recent development of various methods of modulation such as PCM and PPM which exchange
bandwidth for signal-to-noise ratio has intensified the interest in a general theory of communication. A
basis for such a theory is contained in the important papers of Nyquist1 and Hartley2 on this subject. In the
present paper we will extend the theory to include a number of new factors, in particular the effect of noise
in the channel, and the savings possible due to the statistical structure of the original message and due to the
nature of the final destination of the information....