Two other sets of concepts that generate strong, and sometimes conflicting, reactions are the
notion of what is 'public' (the public sector, the state, action that takes place in public) versus
what is 'private' (of interest only to the individual/family, the private sector); and the meanings
associated with money. We suggest that donation is a multi-layered process with each layer
having its own public and private meanings. It may therefore be more helpful to think of public
and private as being complementary and overlapping rather than in opposition (see Box 4.3).
Treatment requirements imposed on individual firms were seen as the most direct
response to pollution problems. In the climate of the early 1970s, and given the lack of regional
institutions in place, the desire to minimize compliance costs and use taxes to meet ambient goals
was less strongly felt. This is one explanation for the quantity-based regulatory system we have
in place to this day. To understand some of the other explanations, it is necessary to describe the
characteristics of a tax system in more detail.
Before doing so, mention should also be made...
We investigate the inﬂuence of information status (IS) on constituent order in German, and integrate our ﬁndings into a loglinear surface realisation ranking model. We show that the distribution of pairs of IS categories is strongly asymmetric. Moreover, each category is correlated with morphosyntactic features, which can be automatically detected. We build a loglinear model that incorporates these asymmetries for ranking German string realisations from input LFG F-structures.
We notion of argue that in domains can be where it a strong can be Mann and Moore , on the other hand, while assembling texts dynamically to suit their audience, do so by "over-generating" the set of facts that will be related, and then passing them all through a special filter, leaving out those that are judged to be already known to the audience and letting through those that are new. McKeown  uses a similar technique -- her generator, like Mann and Moore's, must examine every potentially mentionable object in the domain data base and make...
We propose a novel algorithm for extracting dependencies from the derivations of a large fragment of CCG. Unlike earlier proposals, our dependency structures are always tree-shaped. We then use these dependency trees to compare the strong generative capacities of CCG and TAG and obtain surprising results: Both formalisms generate the same languages of derivation trees – but the mechanisms they use to bring the words in these trees into a linear order are incomparable.
Most algorithms dedicated to the generation of referential descriptions widely suffer from a fundamental problem: they make too strong assumptions about adjacent processing components, resulting in a limited coordination with their perceptive and linguistics data, that is, the provider for object descriptors and the lexical expression by which the chosen descriptors is ultimately realized.
Recently, it was shown (K UHLMANN , S ATTA: Tree-adjoining grammars are not closed under strong lexicalization. Comput. Linguist., 2012) that ﬁnitely ambiguous tree adjoining grammars cannot be transformed into a normal form (preserving the generated tree language), in which each production contains a lexical symbol.
Pipelined Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems have grown increasingly complex as architectural modules were added to support language functionalities such as referring expressions, lexical choice, and revision. This has given rise to discussions about the relative placement of these new modules in the overall architecture. Recent work on another aspect of multi-paragraph text, discourse markers, indicates it is time to consider where a discourse marker insertion algorithm ﬁts in.
The rapid development of science and technology leads to improvement of human life, but
also creating of new crisis situation. Mankind is confronted with risks that have not been
seen before in human history. Global worming is one of the typical examples. Although ma‐
jority of the experts that are studying climate changes claim that global worming is a fact
and that it is caused by human, there are also scientists that doubt those statements. One of
the main problems related to critical situations is – mater of responsibility.
IVF and related treatments (GIFT and ZIFT, see below) are the most invasive ART treatments.
Usually women try other methods first, and turn to IVF when those methods have not succeeded
in pregnancy or live birth. One percent of babies in the US are born using IVF. Unlike AI,
fertilization takes place outside the woman’s body in which eggs (retrieved from the woman
trying to get pregnant or from an egg donor) are fertilized with sperm (from a partner or donor)
in a Petri dish.
We prove the strong Macdonald conjecture of Hanlon and Feigin for reductive groups G. In a geometric reformulation, we show that the Dolbeault cohomology H q (X; Ωp ) of the loop Grassmannian X is freely generated by de Rham’s forms on the disk coupled to the indecomposables of H • (BG). Equating the two Euler characteristics gives an identity, independently known to Macdonald [M], which generalises Ramanujan’s 1 ψ1 sum. For simply laced root systems at level 1, we also ﬁnd a ‘strong form’ of Bailey’s 4 ψ4 sum. ...
Protocols and data sources present other variables considered determining average and peak
load requirements. In terms of effect on EPS rates, our experience is that systems using UDP can
generate more events more quickly, but this creates a higher load for the management tool,
which actually slows collection and correlation when compared to TCP. One of our reviewing
analysts has seen UDP packets dropped at 3,000 EPS, while TCP could maintain a 100,000 EPS
load. It’s also been our experience that use of both protocols in single environment....
Interest in trends in the health of the elderly has become widespread in recent years.
Until about two decades ago, trends in mortality were assumed to provide a good
indicator of the health of the elderly, and because mortality was decreasing fairly
steadily, it was assumed that health was improving. Subsequently, both researchers
and policy makers have come to understand that health is a multidimensional
concept and that trends in mortality do not necessarily represent trends in all other
dimensions of health; and, in fact, change in all dimensions does not have to be
We prove that in every ﬁnitely generated proﬁnite group, every subgroup of ﬁnite index is open; this implies that the topology on such groups is determined by the algebraic structure. This is deduced from the main result about ﬁnite groups: let w be a ‘locally ﬁnite’ group word and d ∈ N. Then there exists f = f (w, d) such that in every d-generator ﬁnite group G, every element of the verbal subgroup w(G) is equal to a product of f w-values.
This book brings together two of the important intellectual or theoretical
issues of concern to students of comparative constitutional law as it has developed
in the United States over the past decade.
The dominant nature of this long-short or spread trading
activity explains why hedge funds do so well in market
downturns (i.e. it is not directional). But it also explains why
leverage needs to be relatively high: investing in a strong
stock market generates strong returns, while investing in a
low-risk spread in a long-short strategy does not. So the
trade has to be levered up a number of times in order for the
spread trades to generate competitive returns (while keeping
the benefit of avoiding directional risk in the market).
At the start of the 21st century, the learning potential of significant numbers of children
and young people in every country in the world is compromised. Hunger, malnutrition,
micronutrient deficiencies, parasite infections, drug and alcohol abuse, violence and injury,
early and unintended pregnancy, and infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted
infections threaten the health and lives of children and youth (UNESCO, 2001). Yet these
conditions and behaviours can be improved.
Following the ramp-up into volume rollout described in the section above, a full deployment rate of
almost 6,000 premises passed per day is planned for FY2014. A significant risk to achieving this
planned rate, and hence, the volume deployment plan, is a possible economy-wide shortage of
available construction resources at an acceptable cost. In particular, this will be dependent on the
overall market demand for labour. NBN Co will work with the training industry to ameliorate the
impacts of possible labour shortages.
The level of basic services accessible to Mexican households has improved strongly
in past decades. According to the 12th population census of 2000, water is
available now in 89.7% of all households (up from 79.4% in 1990) and power
reaches 95.4% of all households (up from 87.5% in 1990). For exporters of high
quality consumer products, the penetration of more sophisticated products and/or
services is more relevant: Tables 7 and 8 give an overview of recent data, including
further refinements according to the socio-economic level and the region of