Landfill gas from a source of green energy, clean, renewable and can be used to create
electricity, or used in the energy industry. This paper reviews the potential energy recovery
landfill gas from municipal solid waste, to reducing methane emissions in particular, and reduced
greenhouse gas emissions in general. In addition, this paper provides an assessment using the model of
methane generated from landfill municipal solid waste and generate energy potential of gas recovered.
In particular, this paper uses a life cycle assessment methods ......
This paper introduces a method for the semi-automatic generation of grammar test items by applying Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Based on manually-designed patterns, sentences gathered from the Web are transformed into tests on grammaticality. The method involves representing test writing knowledge as test patterns, acquiring authentic sentences on the Web, and applying generation strategies to transform sentences into items.
This is a comprehensive textbook for the new trend of distributed power generation systems and renewable energy sources in electric power systems. It covers the complete range of topics from fundamental concepts to major technologies as well as advanced topics for power consumers.
This short paper introduces an implemented and evaluated monolingual Text-to-Text generation system. The system takes monologue and transforms it to two-participant dialogue. After brieﬂy motivating the task of monologue-to-dialogue generation, we describe the system and present an evaluation in terms of ﬂuency and accuracy.
In this paper we present a new approach to controlling the behaviour of a natural language generation system by correlating internal decisions taken during free generation of a wide range of texts with the surface stylistic characteristics of the resulting outputs, and using the correlation to control the generator. This contrasts with the generate-andtest architecture adopted by most previous empirically-based generation approaches, offering a more efficient, generic and holistic method of generator control. ...
The RAGS proposals for generic speciﬁcation of NLG systems includes a detailed account of data representation, but only an outline view of processing aspects. In this paper we introduce a modular processing architecture with a concrete implementation which aims to meet the RAGS goals of transparency and reusability. We illustrate the model with the RICHES system – a generation system built from simple linguisticallymotivated modules.
A lexicon is an essential component in a generation system but few efforts have been made to build a rich, large-scale lexicon and make it reusable for different generation applications. In this paper, we describe our work to build such a lexicon by combining multiple, heterogeneous linguistic resources which have been developed for other purposes. Novel transformation and integration of resources is required to reuse them for generation.
The IDAS natural-language generation system uses a KL-ONE type classifier to perform content determination, surface realisation, and part of text planning. Generation-by-classification allows IDAS to use a single representation and reasoning component for both domain and linguistic knowledge, which is difficult for systems based on unification or systemic generation techniques.
This paper introduces a novel generation system that composes humanlike descriptions of images from computer vision detections. By leveraging syntactically informed word co-occurrence statistics, the generator ﬁlters and constrains the noisy detections output from a vision system to generate syntactic trees that detail what the computer vision system sees. Results show that the generation system outperforms state-of-the-art systems, automatically generating some of the most natural image descriptions to date. ...
We present a proposal for the structuring of collocation knowledge 1 in the lexicon of a multilingual generation system and show to what extent it can be used in the process of lexical selection. This proposal is part of Polygloss, a new research project on multilingual generation, and it has been inspired by work carried out in the S EMSYN project (see e.g. [I~(~SNEtt 198812). The descriptive approach presented in this proposal is based on a combination of results from recent lexicographical research and the application of Meaning-Text-Theory (MTT) (see e.g. [MEL'CUK et al.
Certain Romance languages such as Italian, Spanish and Portuguese allow the subject to be erased in tensed clauses. This paper studies subject erasing in the framework of a text generation system for Italian. We will prove that it is first necessary to try to pronominalize the subject. Therefore, we are led to study the synthesis of subject and complement personal pronouns. In Romance languages, personal pronouns raise many syntactic problems, whose solution is complex in a generation system.
The aim of this research is to provide a principled account of the generation of embedded constructions (called parentheticals) and to implement the results in a natural language generation system. Parenthetical constructions are frequently used in texts written in a good writing style and have an important role in text understanding.
This paper describes a system which generates animations for cooking actions in recipes, to help people understand recipes written in Japanese. The major goal of this research is to increase the scalability of the system, i.e., to develop a system which can handle various kinds of cooking actions. We designed and compiled the lexicon of cooking actions required for the animation generation system. The lexicon includes the action plan used for animation generation, and the information about ingredients upon which the cooking action is taken. ...
The order of prenominal adjectival modiﬁers in English is governed by complex and difﬁcult to describe constraints which straddle the boundary between competence and performance. This paper describes and compares a number of statistical and machine learning techniques for ordering sequences of adjectives in the context of a natural language generation system. the large red American car ??the American red large car *car American red the large Some orders are more marked than others, but none are strictly speaking ungrammatical. ...
In a language generation system, a content planner embodies one or more “plans” that are usually hand–crafted, sometimes through manual analysis of target text. In this paper, we present a system that we developed to automatically learn elements of a plan and the ordering constraints among them. As training data, we use semantically annotated transcripts of domain experts performing the task our system is designed to mimic.
Previous approaches to pronominalization have largely been theoretical rather than applied in nature. Frequently, such methods are based on Centering Theory, which deals with the resolution of anaphoric pronouns. But it is not clear that complex theoretical mechanisms, while having satisfying explanatory power, are necessary for the actual generation of pronouns. We ﬁrst illustrate examples of pronouns from various domains, describe a simple method for generating pronouns in an implemented multi-page generation system, and present an evaluation of its performance. ...
It has been hypothesized that Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG) is particularly well suited for sentence generation. It is unclear, however, how a sentence generation system based on TAG should choose among the syntactic possibilities made available in the grammar. In this paper we consider the question of what needs to be done to generate with TAGs and explain a generation system that provides the necessary features. This approach is compared with other TAG-based generation systems.