Generational list of programming languages

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  • In most computers, individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode, the command to multiply them would have a different opcode and so on. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions; the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from, each with a unique numerical code. Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers, it can also store the instruction codes.

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  • Though considerably easier than in machine language, writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. Therefore, most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). High level languages are usually "compiled" into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler.

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  • Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2011 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which permits to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work in any medium, so long as the original work is properly cited. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the work.

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  • The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to addition and subtraction, or might include multiplication, division, trigonometry functions such as sine, cosine, etc., and square roots. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers, albeit with limited precision. However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform.

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  • These are exciting times for Indian renewable energy, and especially so for solar and wind energy. Investments in renewable energy industry in India have increased from a meager $94.58 million in 2001 to $3.7 billion in 2008, and about $7.2 billion by 2009 - at a CAGR of 72%. A significant part of these investments were in wind energy. For the past few years China has been doubling its cumulative wind energy installed capacity, and by end of 2009, the country had a cumulative installed capacity of 25.1 GW, from 12.1 GW for end-2008 - over 100% growth! During the...

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  • Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques.

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  • Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2011 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications.

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  • Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2011 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which permits to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work in any medium, so long as the original work is properly cited. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the work.

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  • Recent Developments in Mobile Communications – A Multidisciplinary Approach Edited by Juan P. Maícas Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2011 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications.

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  • If you’ve made it this far, you’re clearly among the growing number of people who are curious about Linux. I’m not sure what has led you here – perhaps you’re sick of installing security updates every other day, perhaps you’re tired of rebooting when your computer runs slowly, or maybe you’ve just had enough of the Blue Screen of Death – but whatever it was that brought you here, I’m glad to welcome you to the family of Linux users, and hope you’ll find that there’s a whole new...

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  • Diving for bodies was not one of Scott Markman’s favorite things. He gazed across the open water at the big orange ball creeping up over the forest horizon. A passing Florida breeze rippled the glassy lake-top and caused swirls within the fading layer of fog lingering at the water’s surface. Markman found himself wishing he were somewhere else. Kneeling awkwardly on the flexible, black bottom of the rubber boat, he wormed the new regulator mouthpiece back into his sore mouth and sucked test air from the fresh aluminum tank. With his left hand he wiggled the black wrap-around mask down...

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  • Ebooks - some authors hate them. Baroness P.D. James, president of the Society of Authors, finds ebooks ‘unattractive’. Many authors and readers much prefer the look, feel and even smell of a physical book. Some technophobes just hate them on principal whilst others, particularly those of us somewhat longer in the tooth can find the whole subject rather intimidating. JK Rowling

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  • Tham khảo sách 'microsensors by igor v. minin and oleg v. minin', công nghệ thông tin, kỹ thuật lập trình phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Tham khảo sách 'recent application in biometrics edited by jucheng yang and norman poh', công nghệ thông tin, kỹ thuật lập trình phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Tham khảo sách 'windows® 7 resource kitmitch tulloch, tony northrup, and jerry honeycutt', công nghệ thông tin, kỹ thuật lập trình phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • We present an algorithm for the generation of sentences from the semantic representations of Unification Categorial Grammar. We discuss a variant of Shieber's semantic monotonicity requirement and its utility in our algorithm. We indicate how the algorithm may be extended to other grammars obeying the same requirement. Appendices contain a full listing of the program and a trace of execution of the algorithm.

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  • After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: The design principles of graphical user interfaces (GUIs), to build GUIs and handle events generated by user interactions with GUIs, to understand the packages containing GUI components, event-handling classes and interfaces, to create and manipulate buttons, labels, lists, text fields and panels, to handle mouse events and keyboard events, to use layout managers to arrange GUI components.

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