Genetic disorders

Xem 1-20 trên 148 kết quả Genetic disorders
  • Tham khảo sách 'the gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders i', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Tham khảo sách 'the gale genetic disorders volume of 2 m-z', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Readable, well organized, and easy to use, this outstanding encyclopedia signifies a timely and major advance in providing in-depth and comprehensive coverage of medical genetics for the lay reader. The two volumes include nearly 400 substantive entries on genetic diseases and conditions as well as information on basic genetics concepts such as DNA, chromosomes, genetic testing, and pedigree analysis and construction (genetic family history).

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  • Human genetics is the medical field with the most rapid and, one can say, overwhelming progress. The medical practitioner constantly needs to be up-to-date on the newest developments in his field. The diversity and rapid dynamics of advancements in genetics can sometimes overcome the assimilation possibilities of one person; thus, overspecialization for narrowing and deepening the research focus is needed. Consequently, expert opinion is much valued. This book aims to provide exactly such opinions regarding several genetic diseases.

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  • I wrote the first edition of this book more than 20 years ago, and the discoveries in genetics since then have been phenomenal. The new knowledge and applications of human genetics to health and to society have made it even more necessary that nurses "think genetically" in their practice and, indeed in their lives. Genetic factors can be responsible in some way for both direct and indirect disease causation; for variation that determines predisposition, susceptibility, and resistance to disease and also for response to therapeutic management.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'genetic disorders', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Follow-Up Care after Testing Depending on the nature of the genetic disorder, posttest interventions may include (1) cautious surveillance and appropriate health care screening, (2) specific medical interventions, (3) chemoprevention, (4) risk avoidance, and (5) referral to support services. For example, patients with known pathologic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are offered intensive screening as well as the option of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy.

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  • Therapeutic Interventions Based on Genetic Risk for Disease Specific treatments are now available for an increasing number of genetic disorders, whether identified through population-based screening or directed testing (Table 64-2). Although the strategies for therapeutic interventions are best developed for childhood hereditary metabolic diseases, these principles are making their way into the diagnosis and management of adult-onset disorders. Hereditary hemochromatosis illustrates many of the issues raised by the availability of genetic screening in the adult population.

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  • Tham khảo tài liệu 'the gale genetic disorders of encyclopedia vol 2 - part 1', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Epidemiology Hemoglobinopathies are especially common in areas in which malaria is endemic. This clustering of hemoglobinopathies is assumed to reflect a selective survival advantage for the abnormal RBC, which presumably provide a less hospitable environment during the obligate RBC stages of the parasitic life cycle. Very young children with αthalassemia are more susceptible to infection with the nonlethal Plasmodium vivax. Thalassemia might then favor a natural protection against infection with the more lethal P. falciparum.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Singling out genetic disorders and disease

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  • Table 62-1 Selected Databases Relevant for Genomics and Genetic Disorders Site URL Comment National Center Biotechnology Information (NCBI) for http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Molecular biology information, public databases, computational Site URL Comment biology. for Software analyzing genome data. Extensive links to other databases, genome resources, tutorials and National Human Genome http://www.genome.gov/ Web providing links Research Institute information about the human genome sequence, genomes of other organisms, and research genomic ...

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  • Complex Genetic Disorders The expression of many common diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, psychiatric disorders, and certain cancers is determined by a combination of genetic background, environmental factors, and lifestyle. A trait is called polygenic if multiple genes contribute to the phenotype or multifactorial if multiple genes are assumed to interact with environmental factors. Genetic models for these complex traits need to account for genetic heterogeneity and interactions with other genes and the environment.

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  • DNA testing is performed by mutational analysis or linkage studies in individuals at risk for a genetic disorder known to be present in a family. Mass screening programs require tests of high sensitivity and specificity to be costeffective. Prerequisites for the success of genetic screening programs include the following: that the disorder is potentially serious; that it can be influenced at a presymptomatic stage by changes in behavior, diet, and/or pharmaceutical manipulations; and that the screening does not result in any harm or discrimination.

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  • Microdeletion Syndromes The term contiguous gene syndrome refers to genetic disorders that mimic a combination of single-gene disorders. They result from the deletion of a small number of tightly clustered genes. Because some are too small to be detected cytogenetically, they are termed microdeletions. The application of molecular techniques has led to the identification of at least 18 of these microdeletion syndromes (Table 63-4). Some of the more common ones include the Wilms' tumor–aniridia complex (WAGR), Miller Dieker syndrome (MDS), and velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome.

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  • Population Screening Mass genetic screening programs require tests of high enough sensitivity and specificity to be cost-effective. An effective screening program should fulfill the following criteria: that the tested disorder is prevalent and serious; that it can be influenced presymptomatically through lifestyle changes, screening, or medications; and that identification of risk does not result in undue discrimination or harm.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 64. The Practice of Genetics in Clinical Medicine Implications of Molecular Genetics for Internal Medicine The field of medical genetics has traditionally focused on chromosomal abnormalities (Chap. 63) and Mendelian disorders (Chap. 62). However, there is genetic susceptibility to many common adult-onset diseases, including atherosclerosis, cardiac disorders, asthma, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, diabetes mellitus, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, psychiatric disorders, and many forms of cancer.

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  • While history and examination will always remain the foundation of neurolog- ical diagnosis, MRI and CT have now become the most important diagnostic tests used by neurologists and neurosurgeons. These tests are critical not only for confirming clinical diagnosis, but in many cases will give additional infor- mation absolutely essential to patient care. Modern clinical diagnosis and treat- ment of central nervous system disorders relies heavily upon neuroimaging. In some cases, the optimal management of clinical problems affecting patients with brain tumors, strokes, etc.

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  • Heavy Chain Diseases The heavy chain diseases are rare lymphoplasmacytic malignancies. Their clinical manifestations vary with the heavy chain isotype. Patients secrete a defective heavy chain that usually has an intact Fc fragment and a deletion in the Fd region. Gamma, alpha, and mu heavy chain diseases have been described, but no reports of delta or epsilon heavy chain diseases have appeared. Molecular biologic analysis of these tumors has revealed structural genetic defects that may account for the aberrant chain secreted.

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  • Recall of family history is often inaccurate. This is especially so when the history is remote and families become more dispersed geographically. It can be helpful to ask patients to fill out family history forms before or after their visits, as this provides them with an opportunity to contact relatives. Attempts should be made to confirm the illnesses reported in the family history before making important and, in certain circumstances, irreversible management decisions.

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