The book "Intraepithelial neoplasia" is till date the most comprehensive book dedicated entirely to preinvasive lesions of the human body. Created and published with an aim of helping clinicians to not only diagnose but also understand the etiopathogenesis of the precursor lesions, the book also attempts to identify its molecular and genetic mechanisms. All of the chapters contain a considerable amount of new information, with an updated bibliographical list as well as the latest WHO classification of intraepithelial lesions that has been included wherever needed.
When did humans appear? What is it
that makes us different from the
rest of the animals? In what way
did language develop? Why is it so
important to have deciphered the sequence
of the human genome? This book offers
answers to these and many other questions
about the mysteries and marvels of human
evolution. Scientists maintain that modern
humans originated in Africa because that is
where they have found the oldest bones.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Genetic mechanisms of knee osteoarthritis: a population-based longitudinal study...
Mechanisms of salt tolerance in halophytes: can crop plants resistance to salinity be improved? High concentrations of sodium are toxic to most plant species, making soil salinity a major abiotic stress in plant productivity world wide. Many crop species, which countless people rely for survival, are negatively affected.
Book "Milk Production - Advanced Genetic Traits, Cellular Mechanism, Animal Nutrition and Management" is made for the publication of continuation of advances in the knowledge involving milk production. This book is divided into two main sections and is devoted to more specific consideration of areas with aspects of genetics factors and the molecular and cellular mechanisms, animal management, nutrition and husbandry.
The book "The Mediterranean Genetic Code - Grapevine and Olive" collects relevant papers documenting the results of research in grapevine and olive genetics, as a contribution to overall compendium of the existing biodiversity for both species with insight into molecular mechanisms responsible for their desirable and important traits. Book encompasses a broad and diverse palette of different topics related to grapevine and olive genetics, with no areal or any other strict limitation, keeping the title as a loose frame for borderless science.
Segregation of alleles. Segregation of genotypes in the offspring of parents with one dominant (A) and one recessive (a) allele. The distribution of the parental alleles to their offspring depends on the combination present in the parents. Filled symbols = affected individuals.
Autosomal Dominant Disorders
Autosomal dominant disorders assume particular relevance because mutations in a single allele are sufficient to cause the disease.
Mechanisms of Oncogene Activation Mechanisms that upregulate (or activate) cellular oncogenes fall into three broad categories: point mutation, DNA amplification, and chromosomal rearrangement.
Point mutation is a common mechanism of oncogene activation. For example, mutations in one of the RAS genes (HRAS, KRAS, or NRAS) are present in up to 85% of pancreatic cancers and 50% of colon cancers but are relatively uncommon in other cancer types. Remarkably—and in contrast to the diversity of mutations found in tumor-suppressor genes (Fig.
Chromosomal Instability in Solid Tumors Solid tumors are generally highly aneuploid, containing an abnormal number of chromosomes; these chromosomes also exhibit structural alterations such as translocations, deletions, and amplifications. Again, colon cancer has proven to be a particularly useful model for the study of chromosomal instability (CIN). As described above, some familial cases are characterized by the presence of MIN.
Transcriptional activation can be divided into three main mechanisms:
Events that alter chromatin structure can enhance the access
of transcription factors to DNA. For example, histone acetylation generally opens chromatin structure and is correlated with transcriptional activation.
Posttranslational modifications of transcription factors, such
as phosphorylation, can induce the assembly of active transcription complexes.
Population geneticists study the genetic composition and variability of natural
populations as well as the theories that explain this variability in terms of natural
selection, mutation, recombination, genetic drift and gene flow. Population genetics
was first developed among eukaryotes in an attempt to reconcile Darwin’s theory of
evolution by natural selection and Mendelian genetics. When Darwin postulated that
natural selection is the main force of evolutionary change, a great controversy was
Molecular dynamics simulations employing a combined quantum mechani-cal and molecular mechanical potential have been carried out to elucidate
the reaction mechanism of the hydrolysis of a cyclic nucleotide cAMP sub-strate by phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B).
Anaemia is a common complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. The precise mechanism of anaemia in pulmonary tuberculosis is not
clearly known, but anaemia of inflammation as well as of Fe deficiency has been implicated. Both are common in developing countries.
It is extremely difficult to distinguish anaemia of Fe deficiency from anaemia of inflammation with the haematological indices used routinely.
Therefore, Fe preparations are usually prescribed for all anaemic patients irrespective of the aetiology. This approach has been
Chapter 15 - Gene regulation in prokaryotes. This chapter include the contents: Overview of prokaryotic gene regulation, the regulation of gene transcription, attenuation of gene expression: termination of transcription, global regulatory mechanisms, a comprehensive example: the regulation of virulence genes in V. cholerae.
AlthoughL-amino oxidase (LAAO; EC 18.104.22.168) has been reported to be a
potent antibacterial agent, the mechanism responsible for its antibacterial
activity has not been identified. The present study aimed to identify the
mechanism responsible for the antibacterial activity of Th-LAAO, an LAAO
recently isolated from the extracellular proteins of Trichoderma harzianum
ETS 323, at the same time as elucidating the nature of this enzyme.
The practice of medicine has a long tradition of making a diagnosis by building
up a composite picture of the symptoms and their history, a clinical
examination and specialist investigations. A diagnosis enables the course of
the disease to be predicted and the appropriate treatment used.However, scientific
developments in genetics, by allowing us to detect specific abnormalities
in chromosomes and in individual genes, are beginning to throw light
on the mechanisms involved at a biochemical and molecular level.
Multisite phosphorylation is an important mechanism for fine-tuned regula-tion of protein function. Mathematical models developed over recent years
have contributed to elucidation of the functional consequences of a variety
of molecular mechanisms involved in processing of the phosphorylation
Protein-tyrosine phosphatases are tightly controlled by various mecha-nisms, ranging from differential expression in specific cell types to restricted
subcellular localization, limited proteolysis, post-translational modifications
affecting intrinsic catalytic activity, ligand binding and dimerization. Here,
we review the regulatory mechanisms found to control the classical pro-tein-tyrosine phosphatases.
The topics discussed in this chapter are: What facts form the base of our understanding of evolution? What are the mechanisms of evolutionary change? What evolutionary mechanisms result in adaptation? How is genetic variation maintained within populations? What are the constraints on evolution? How have humans influenced evolution?