Genome initiative

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  • The birth of livestock genomics 15 years ago was inspired by the human genome initiative and the potential for capturing both its technologies and massive comparative data sets for application to livestock species, most of which are mammals. We are currently reaping the benefits of these efforts, with sequencing projects completed or ongoing in chickens, cattle, pigs, and horses and valuable mapping resources developed for others such as sheep and turkeys.

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  • Over the past several years, scientists from the United States and around the world have been using a technique called DNA sequencing to unlock the genetic code of many different organisms. With code in hand, scientists can design sophisticated experiments that will inform our understanding of how an organism develops and functions. To date, they have carried out partial or complete DNA sequencing on human, mouse, rat, bacterial, and plant genomes. A major finding that was confirmed from these efforts is that most biologic functions are genetically conserved within and between species....

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  • I propose an Enzyme Genomics Initiative, the goal of which is to obtain at least one protein sequence for each enzyme that has previously been characterized biochemically. There are 1,437 enzyme activities for which Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers have been assigned but no sequence can be found in public protein-sequence databases. A recent essay by

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  • Currently, one of the most established and widely accepted stem cell bank systems is umbilical cord blood banking. However, the establishement of somatic stem cell bank other than cord blood (non-hematopoietic stem cells) is still underway. The nature of somatic stem/progenitor cells is much different from that of embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem/progenitor cells possess limited ability to differentiate compared with ES cells and iPS cells.

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  • It has been nearly 20 years since the last Humana Press book devoted to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptors has appeared. Since then, the field of 5-HT receptors has undergone a revolution due to the discovery of many additional 5-HT receptors. Although 5-HT was chemically elucidated in 1948 by Page and colleagues (Rapport et al.

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  • If now the household starts spending some of its income (as can be expected in the real world), we would see a further step in the income-creation: Demand for consumer goods would increase. As long as consumer goods are produced domestically and firms can expand their production, this would lead to a further increase in domestic employment, further increasing aggregate income. However, as households save part of their income, also aggregate saving increases, providing the ex post finance of the initial investment.

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  • While structuring financing packages for vital projects is among the most impor- tant roles the federal government plays in infrastructure investment, its activities extend well beyond this role and into research, issuing regulations, awarding grants, environmental protection, and even directly operating and maintaining locks, dams, bridges, and utilities throughout our country. To coordinate all of these activities and maximize the efficiency of federal infrastructure programs, we need a national infrastructure planning council.

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  • Yet, despite progress in the identification of problems and the development of improved methodologies -- and the possibility of regulatory initiatives that feature mandated environmental accounting -- the field lacks a methodology for evaluating the social and private benefits of improved environmental accounting. Whether regulators continue to motivate EA indirectly via outreach to the private sector, or more directly via incentives such as tax breaks or mandates, private sector resources and regulatory attention should be focused on initiatives that promise the greatest benefit.

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  • The Genetic Map Given the size and complexity of the human genome, initial efforts aimed at developing genetic maps to provide orientation and to delimit where a gene of interest may be located. A genetic map describes the order of genes and defines the position of a gene relative to other loci on the same chromosome. It is constructed by assessing how frequently two markers are inherited together (i.e., linked) by association studies. Distances of the genetic map are expressed in recombination units, or centiMorgans (cM).

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  • As this is a general edition of The SAR Activity Review, readers will note that the articles cover a wide range of topics. However, to the extent that there is a unifying theme, we feature several articles that aim to address some issues raised during the outreach initiative to depository institutions with assets under $5 billion that the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) is continuing to conduct this year.

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  • This paper was originally presented as the first in the Sol Plaatjie Lecture Series on Africa, jointly hosted by the Ministry of Education and the African Human Genome Initiative in November 2002. The author Himla Soodyall addresses the contribution towards the generation of knowledge concerning the evolutionary history of mankind made by genetic approaches to anthropological questions. She examines the use and relevance of genetic data as another ’tool’ in the reconstruction of our history. About the Author/sProfessor Himla Soodyall obtained a B.Sc (Hons) degree at the University...

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  • The Bank assumes that the four types of capital it identifies are substitutable, in other words that the economy is a self-sufficient system, rather than a subsystem of a finite ecosystem, dependent upon the latter for inputs, sinks and life-support functions. The “weak sustainability” approach which forms the basis of genuine savings calculations assumes that there are no ecological limits, only moments when the economy may stumble a little before adapting (for example by inventing new technologies or finding new raw materials) without critical damage occuring.

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  • As this document explains, we and our partners are now implementing a programme that combines laying firm foundations for sustainable improvement with other initiatives designed to have more immediate impact. The FSA alone will spend up to £10 million this year in supporting the programme. Taken together, these initiatives will reach many millions of people over the next five years. The programme takes specific account of the needs of people who may be excluded from the financial system.

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  • The virus protein linked to the genome (VPg) of plant potyviruses is a 25-kDa protein covalently attached to the genomic RNA 5¢ end. It was previously reported that VPg binds specifically to eIF4E, the mRNAcap-binding protein of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex. We per-formed a spectroscopic study of the interactions between lettuce eIF4E and VPg from lettuce mosaic virus (LMV).

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  • The universities must develop new fields of multi-discipline research in building design, engineering, energy and carbon efficiency, directed towards providing the industry with feedback on the success or otherwise of current initiatives. This will create numerous opportunities for industrial and international partnerships, supported by a wide range of new funding and revenue streams, not traditionally available to academic researchers.

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  • In view of the potential health, development, and human rights implications of recent findings, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), launched an initiative to understand this problem better and to identify and propose solutions to it.

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  • The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied.

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  • The current literature suggests that approximately half to two thirds of those diag- nosed with breast cancer handle it well psychologically (Baker, Marcellus, Zabora, Pol- land, Jodrey, 1997; Spiegel, 1996). In fact, some individuals with a history of cancer report renewed vigor in their approach to life, and stronger interpersonal relationships (Anderson, 1986; Cella & Tross, 1986). For example, Tempelaar and colleagues (1989) found that cancer patients reported more positive and fewer negative social experiences than a comparison group of healthy “normals.

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  • This paper was presented as the first annual John Gerhart Memorial Lecture at the conference of the Africa Genome Initiative held in Cairo in March 2004. In Africa in the Age of Biology, Dr James discusses Africa’s long history of scientific, technological and mathematical enterprise, from tokens of the very earliest counting by humans to the sum of knowledge brought to bear in the construction of the pyramids. But he focuses on the challenges of today, and tomorrow, which he suggests Africa’s leaders and scholars dare not overlook....

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  • Fedwire securities are processed individually, in much the same way that Fedwire funds transfers are processed, and participants initiate securi- ties transfers in the same manner, using either a computer connection or the telephone. When the Federal Reserve receives a request to transfer a security, for example as a result of the sale of securities, it determines that the security is held in safekeeping for the institution requesting the transfer and withdraws the security from the institution’s safekeeping account.

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