Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Genome-wide deletion mutant analysis reveals genes required for respiratory growth, mitochondrial genome maintenance and mitochondrial protein synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
Forty years ago, Congress asked the National Academies Committee on
Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP)—the only joint policy
committee of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of
Engineering, and Institute of Medicine—to look at the relationship between basic
research and national goals. That request, from the House Committee on Science
and Astronautics in 1964, resulted in the report Basic Research and National Goals.
Homologous recombination (HR) serves to eliminate deleterious
lesions, such as double-stranded breaks and interstrand crosslinks,
from chromosomes. HR is also critical for the preservation of replication
forks, for telomere maintenance, and chromosome segregation
in meiosis I. As such, HR is indispensable for the maintenance
of genome integrity and the avoidance of cancers in humans. The
HR reaction is mediated by a conserved class of enzymes termed
DNA replication, the process of copying one double stranded DNA molecule to produce two identical copies, is at the heart of cell proliferation. This book highlights new insights into the replication process in eukaryotes, from the assembly of pre-replication complex and features of DNA replication origins, through polymerization mechanisms, to propagation of epigenetic states. It also covers cell cycle control of replication initiation and includes the latest on mechanisms of replication in prokaryotes. The association between genome replication and transcription is also addressed.
Most (78%) mitochondrial genomes in the studied mutant strain of Drosophila subobscura have undergone a large-scale deletion (5 kb) in the coding region. This mutation is stable, and is transmitted intact to the oﬀspring. This animal model of major rearrangements of mitochondrial genomes can be used to analyse the involvement of the nuclear genome in the production and maintenance of these rearrangements.
Genomic assays. Unlike individual
gene testing, such as testing for HER2,
genomic assays analyze the activity of
a group of normal and abnormal genes
that can increase the risk of breast
cancer coming back after treatment. This
analysis can help decide if a person is
likely to benefit from chemotherapy to
reduce the risk of the cancer coming
back. Two types of genomic assays
for breast cancer are currently in use:
Oncotype DX and MammaPrint.
he tumor suppressor, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), plays
an integral role in the maintenance of genome stability and, in particular,
the cellular response to DNA damage. Here, the emerging role of BRCA1
in nonhomologous end-joining-mediated DNA repair following DNA dam-age will be reviewed, as well as the activation of apoptotic pathways.
One of the most drastic post-translational modification of proteins in eu-karyotic cells is poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, catalysed by a family enzymes
termed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). In the human genome, 18
different genes have been identified that all encode PARP family members.