Maize DNA-sequencing strategies and genome organization
Ron J Okagaki and Ronald L Phillips
Address: Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, and Center for Plant and Microbial Genomics, The University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. Correspondence: Ron J Okagaki. E-mail: email@example.com
Published: 16 April 2004 Genome Biology 2004, 5:223 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at http://genomebiology.
The biological sciences have become more quantitative and information-driven
since emerging computational and mathematical tools facilitate collection and
analysis of vast amounts of biological data. Complexity analysis of biological
systems provides biological knowledge for the organization, management, and
mining of biological data by using advanced computational tools. The biological
data are inherently complex, nonuniform, and collected at multiple temporal and
Over the past several years, scientists from the United States and
around the world have been using a technique called DNA sequencing to unlock
the genetic code of many different organisms. With code in hand, scientists can
design sophisticated experiments that will inform our understanding of how an
organism develops and functions. To date, they have carried out partial or
complete DNA sequencing on human, mouse, rat, bacterial, and plant genomes.
A major finding that was confirmed from these efforts is that most biologic
functions are genetically conserved within and between species....
Impurities in the purge gas, organic compounds outgassing from the plumbing ahead
of the trap, and solvent vapors in the laboratory account for the majority of
contamination problems. The analytical system must be demonstrated to be free from
contamination under the conditions of the analysis by running laboratory reagent
blanks as described in Section 8.1.3. The use of non-Teflon plastic tubing, non-Teflon
thread sealants, or flow controllers with rubber components in the purge and trap
system should be avoided....
The availability of the complete chicken genome sequence provides an
unprecedented opportunity to study the global genome organization at the
sequence level. Delineating compositionally homogeneous G + C domains
in DNA sequences can provide much insight into the understanding of the
organization and biological functions of the chicken genome.
Some organic pest management strategies include
using crop rotations that disrupt the pest life cycle,
improving soil quality, practicing good sanitation,
using optimum planting densities, timing planting
and transplanting operations to avoid high pest
populations, employing biological control, and
growing resistant varieties. Approved pesticides
that have been listed in the grower’s OSP can be
used in organic production, but should be used as
judiciously and as specific to the pest organism
The human MUC4 gene encodes a large membrane-associated mucin, characterized by a mucin tandem repeat domain and a growth factor-like transmembrane domain. In addition to the originally published sequence (sv0-MUC4), several MUC4 cDNA sequences (called sv1-MUC4 to sv21MUC4, MUC4/X, MUC4/Y) from various tissues and cell lines have been recently described. They diﬀer from sv0MUC4 by deletions and/or insertions located in the 3¢ region or, for two of them, by deletion of the central repetitive domain.
Chapter 10 introduce to the genomes and proteomes. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Large-scale genome mapping and analysis, major insights from the human and model organism genome sequences, global analysis of genes and their mRNAs, global analysis of proteomes, repercussions of the human genome project and high-throughput technology.
Chapter 14 - Prokaryotic and organelle genetics. This chapter begins with a discussion of the origins of yeast mitochondrial work. It then discusses the development of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism. It also shows how early work on the organelle genetics of Chlamydomonas and yeast were carried out relatively independently; but inevitably the rationales soon paralleled one another.
Chapter 18 - Using genetics to study development. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Model organisms: prototypes for developmental genetics, using mutations to dissect development, analysis of developmental pathways, a comprehensive example: body-plan development in Drosophila, how genes help control development.
Chapter 20 describes evolution at the molecular level. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: The origin of life on earth, the evolution of genomes, the organization of genomes, a comprehensive example: rapid evolution in the immune response and in HIV.
Lecture Biology - Chapter 17: Genome sequencing, molecular biology, and medicine. The topics discussed in this chapter are: How do defective proteins lead to diseases? What kinds of DNA changes lead to diseases? How does genetic screening detect diseases? What is cancer? How are genetic diseases treated? What have we learned from the human genome project?
This meeting, organized by Richard Flavell (Ceres, Malibu, USA) and Rob Martienssen (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, USA), brought together a diverse group of speakers for a discussion of plant genome organization and the types of variation that exist between and within species. This report focuses on the consequences of this variation on phenotype, and the basis of this variation at the DNA and epigenetic
Uncovering Recurrent Submicroscopic Rearrangements As a Cause of Disease
For five decades since Fred Sanger's (1) seminal discovery that proteins have a specific
structure, since Linus Pauling's (2) discovery that hemoglobin from patients with sickle
cell anemia is molecularly distinct, and since Watson and Crick's (3) elucidation of the
chemical basis of heredity, the molecular basis of disease has been addressed in the
context of how mutations affect the structure, function, or regulation of a gene or its
In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What are the characteristics of the eukaryotic genome? What are the characteristics of eukaryotic genes? How are eukaryotic gene transcripts processed? How is eukaryotic gene transcription regulated? How is eukaryotic gene expression regulated after transcription? How is gene expression controlled during and after translation?
Learning objectives of this chapter include: Define genome; discuss the breath of genomics; distinguish between genetic maps and physical maps; describe the different techniques used for sequencing a genome; discuss the pros and cons of using clone-by-clone sequencing versus shotgun sequencing;...
In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Chromatin structure is based on successive levels of DNA packing; gene expression can be regulated at any stage, but the key step is transcription; cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle control;...
After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: DNA cloning permits production of multiple copies of a specific gene or other DNA segment, restriction fragment analysis detects DNA differences that affect restriction sites, entire genomes can be mapped at the DNA level, genome sequences provide clues to important biological questions, the practical applications of DNA technology affect our lives in many ways.
The genomics revolution of the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of
the genetic composition of living organisms including many plant species of economic
importance. Complete genomic sequences of Arabidopsis and several major crops, together
with high-throughput technologies for analyses of transcripts, proteins and mutants, provide
the basis for understanding the relationship between genes, proteins and phenotypes.
The term DNA sequencing refers to methods for determining the order of the nucleotides
bases adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine in a molecule of DNA. The first DNA sequence
were obtained by academic researchers,using laboratories methods based on 2- dimensional
chromatography in the early 1970s. By the development of dye based sequencing method
with automated analysis,DNA sequencing has become easier and faster.