This is a book about medical genomics, a new field that is
attempting to combine knowledge generated from the Human
Genome Project (HGP) and analytic methods from bioinformatics
with the practice of medicine. From my perspective as
a research molecular biologist, genomics has emerged as a result
of automated high-throughput technologies entering the molecular
biology laboratory and of bioinformatics being used to
process the data.
The birth of livestock genomics 15 years ago was inspired by the human genome initiative
and the potential for capturing both its technologies and massive comparative data
sets for application to livestock species, most of which are mammals. We are currently
reaping the benefits of these efforts, with sequencing projects completed or ongoing in
chickens, cattle, pigs, and horses and valuable mapping resources developed for others
such as sheep and turkeys.
Tham khảo sách 'dna methylation – from genomics to technology edited by tatiana tatarinova and owain kerton', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
Tham khảo sách 'biomems and biomedical nanotechnology - volume ii micro/nano technology for genomics and proteomics', giáo dục - đào tạo, cao đẳng - đại học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
It has been a privilege to watch the growth of RNA interference technology over
the last ten years. Starting with a mixture of curiosity and chagrin, the field has
grown into a substantial enterprise which impacts (and utilizes resources from)
virtually every field of biomedical research. Research in RNAi derives from a set of
apparently unconnected observations: strange pigment patterns in plants, unexpected
failures and successes in antisense and overexpression studies, small regulatory
RNAs in bacteria.
Chapter 10 introduce to the genomes and proteomes. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Large-scale genome mapping and analysis, major insights from the human and model organism genome sequences, global analysis of genes and their mRNAs, global analysis of proteomes, repercussions of the human genome project and high-throughput technology.
The genomics revolution of the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of
the genetic composition of living organisms including many plant species of economic
importance. Complete genomic sequences of Arabidopsis and several major crops, together
with high-throughput technologies for analyses of transcripts, proteins and mutants, provide
the basis for understanding the relationship between genes, proteins and phenotypes.
Flow cytometry is a technology that simultaneously measures and analyses multiple
physical characteristics of single particles, usually cells, as they flow in a fluid stream
through a beam of light. The properties measured include a particle’s relative size
(represented by forward angle light scatter), relative granularity or internal complexity
(represented by right-angle scatter), and relative fluorescence intensity.
Researchers have theorized that anti-inflammatory medications may help prevent
diseases, such as coronary artery diseases (CAD), cardio vascular diseases (CVD),
stroke, colon cancer and Alzheimer’s. Several recent findings from different
laboratories in the world employing case-control human studies and/or specific animal
models for chronic human diseases support these ideas.
In recent years, completion of the sequencing of the human genome as well as the
genomes of dozens of other organisms and subsequent development of tools for comprehensive
analysis of other cellular constituents have revolutionized biology. These new
technologies, referred to broadly as “genomics,” have integrated biologic sciences with
information sciences and engineering.
The Computer Revolution:
Progress in computer technology:
Underpinned by Moore’s Law.
Makes novel applications feasible:
Computers in automobiles,
Human genome project,
World Wide Web,
Computers are pervasive.
The rapid adoption of the Internet and computing technologies by all sectors of
modern society has made them an indispensable part of our daily work and life.
Access to these resources is taken for granted by public agencies providing
services to the community, by those who conduct business and commerce, and
by those who use them to stay current on public affairs and in touch with their
families and friends on a daily basis.
Since the discovery of X rays by Roentgen in 1895, the ionizing radiation has been
extensively utilized in a variety of medical and industrial applications. And it has also
played crucial roles in development of modern sciences and technologies, as witnessed
by more than 60 Nobel Prize winners awarded for achievements in atomic sciences
and ionizing radiation-related researches.
Changes in the pattern of DNA methylation are commonly seen in human tumors.
Both genome wide hypomethylation (insufficient methylation) and region-specific
hypermethylation (excessive methylation) have been suggested to play a role in
carcinogenesis2. A common cause of the loss of tumor-suppressor miRNAs in cancer is
the silencing of primary transcripts by CpG island promoter by hypermethylation3.
The 2005 Declaration discussed above and the Universal
Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, 1997
are both resolutions passed in the General Assembly. They
have no immediate binding effect. They play a signiﬁ cant
role in the formation of customary international law. There
are many different forms of law making in international
law and although an international convention or a
treaty is a source of binding rules, the importance of
other methods of formation of international law cannot
Toxicogenomics has been described as a discipline combining ex-
pertise in toxicology, genetics, molecular biology, and environmental
health to elucidate the response of living organisms to stressful environ-
ments. It includes the study of how genomes respond to toxicant expo-
sures and how genotype affects responses to toxicant exposures. As the
technologies for monitoring these responses rapidly develop, it is critical
that scientists and regulators are confident that the technologies are reli-
able and reproducible and that the data analyses have been validated.
Glofish is the first
approved to be
human in the USA
The insertion of
constructs of GFP
into the fish
genomes to give
colors.The idea for recombinant DNA was first proposed by Peter
Lobban, a graduate student of Prof. Dale Kaiser in the
Biochemistry Department at Stanford University Medical School.
The first publications describing the successful production and
intracellular replication of recombinant DNA appeared in 1972
Nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics are three
new disciplines that will contribute to the rapid development
of functional foods. Bioinformatics is a new tool that uses
computer database technology to integrate data from
multiple, and sometimes disparate, disciplines. Already
these disciplines and tools have improved our understanding
of food science and human nutrition. Discoveries in genetics
make it possible to understand the effects of nutrients in
processes at the molecular level in the body and also the
variable effects of dietary components on each individual.