Genomics and other "omics” technologies have largely contributed to the identification and the
development of biomarkers. Due to genetic causes of variability among individuals, genotyping
and gene expression analysis are indeed key elements of the emergence of personalised medicine.
However, genomic technologies have limitations (functional significance of genetic variants,
false negatives, etc) and cannot encompass all approaches for the development of stratification
Nature has created numerous elegant living systems, including the human, based on the
hierarchical functional units—molecule, cell, tissue, and organ. A living system develops
through a long evolutionary process, during which the system undergoes genotypic and
phenotypic changes in response to environmental simuli.
Yellow stem borer has been identified as a major insect pest of deepwater rice, causing severe yield losses. Bt gene(s)
from Bacillus thuringiensis have been proven very effective in pest resistance program. The use of transgenic plants
expressing Bt gene(s) is now occupied effective approach to control insect infestation. We have successfully introduced
a synthetic cryIA(b) gene into embryogenic calli of a deepwater indica rice variety, Vaidehi, by using the biolistic
method of transformation.
Presence of epigenetic marks enables cells with the same genotype have potential to
display different phenotypes and differentiate into many cell-types with different
functions, and responses to environmental and intercellular signaling. For example,
DNA methylation is essential for the process of imprinting. Imprinted genes are
expressed from only one parental allele. This mono-allelic gene expression is directed
by epigenetic marks established in the mammalian germ line and a single mutation,
either genetic or epigenetic, can cause disease.
DNA chips are gaining increasing importance in different fields ranging from
medicine to analytical chemistry with applications in the latter in food safety
and food quality issues as well as in environmental protection. In the medical
field, DNA chips are frequently used in arrays for gene expression studies (e.g.
Loss of cannabinoid receptors (CB1) occurs prior to neuro-degeneration in Huntington’s disease (HD). The levels and
distribution of CB1 RNA were equivalent in 3-week-old
mice regardless of genotype demonstrating that the specific
factors and appropriate chromatin structure that lead to the
transcription ofCB1were present in the striatum of young
R6/2 and R6/1 transgenic HD mice.