Bonds will play a crucial role in financing the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy. Investor interest in the asset class is growing, but what is the current investment opportunity already out there?
This report, commissioned by the HSBC Climate Change Centre of Excellence and prepared by the Climate Bonds Initiative, presents a first estimate of the outstanding global bond market size linked to key climate change themes, and examines future drivers and trends in the short term.
Economic policy makers, macroprudential supervisors or investors need reliable empiri-
cal estimates of the equilibrium level of credit in the economy. When the level of credit
is low, high dynamics of credit might re°ect an adjustment to the equilibrium, ¯nancial
deepening in emerging economies for instance. When the level of credit is high, even a
one-digit growth rate of credit may be considered excessive. Deviations of credit from
its equilibrium often lead to a widening of macroeconomic imbalances, e.g.
Parents and children need a framework for care which provides
continuity from pre-pregnancy, through pregnancy and childbirth, to
the early years of life. A comprehensive approach to early life is needed
which builds on existing programmes to ensure our children get the
best start in life8. Midwives have a key role in ensuring that their
contribution integrates with the roles of other professionals and
agencies working in collaboration with maternity services.
The Government in May 2011 approved the Medium Term Plan (MTP), which is expected to drive economic growth over the next five years, 2011-15. The Plan will guide the formulation of National Budgets and other social-economic policies of the State. The MTP requires US$9 billion to be implemented over the period 2011-15 and funding is expected from the domestic and external sources including reliance on Public Private Partnership (PPP).
Maize has been cultivated in Ghana for several hundred
years. After being introduced in the late 16th
soon established itself as an important food crop in the
southern part of the country. Very early on, maize also
attracted the attention of commercial farmers, although it
never achieved the economic importance of traditional
plantation crops, such as oil palm and cocoa.
The best raw materials for pulp and paper manufacture is as per the customer requirement and industry norms
are derived from soft woods and some of the hard wood species. In India due to dwindling forest resources, the
pulp and paper industry depends only on bamboo and mixed hardwood. Industry utilizes alternate raw material
to a large extent along with the farm plantations. Fibrous raw material is the single largest component
influencing the manufacturing cost of paper. Any perceptible...
This development of egg cells occurs within the ovary once a month.
One mature egg cell is released from one of the ovaries. The ovaries con-
tain follicles. A follicle is a hollow bundle of cells with an egg inside. The
follicle helps the egg mature. As the egg matures, the follicle enlarges and
ﬁlls with ﬂuid. The greatly enlarged follicle moves to the edge of the ovary
and bursts, releasing the egg and the ﬂuid. This event is ovulation, the
release of an egg from the ovary. (See Figure 17-4.
This paper discusses the effects of bank competition on bank loan and deposit rate levels as well as on
their responses to changes in market rates and, hence, on the monetary policy transmission mechanism.
Given the prominent role of the banking sector in the euro area’s financial system, it is of significant
importance for the ECB to monitor the degree of competitive behaviour in the euro area banking
market. A more competitive banking market is expected to drive down bank loan rates, adding to the
welfare of households and enterprises.
On the other hand, if you really followed the advice I gave you above to keep it simple,
you may have come up with something that is much clearer than the current treatments.
Or, maybe you've found something that is more general. If so, you may have a worthwhile
insight. Go back to your advisor and tell him or her what you have found. Maybe you've
got a new angle on an old idea that is worth further exploration. If so, congratulations|
you would never have found this if you did the literature search right away....
The German economy is expected to slow down further in the second half of
2012, reflecting weaker economic activity in export markets and uncertainty
weighing on investment, before accelerating moderately next year, thanks to
relatively robust consumption and benign financial conditions. The projection
for France is for a very modest growth in 2013 as domestic demand is set to
strengthen only very gradually while the contribution of net exports is likely
to remain small.
What then becomes critical is that project and programme managers and senior management make
efficient and effective use of the services and capabilities of the PMO. And finally it is important to
define the metrics by which the performance of the PMO will be assessed and evaluated, both
directly (the effectiveness of its services) and indirectly (the improvements it enables in project,
programme and portfolio decision making and outcomes).
But that is not the end of the story.
Despite the success in controlling ináation, during the late 1990s-early 2000 international
capital markets witnessed large swings in stock prices generating concern among academics
and policy-makers about the impact of stock price movements on the real economy and the
broader consequences of ináation targeting. Kontonikas and Ioannidis (2005) show that an
ináation targeting regime with strong interest rate reaction to ináation should lead to lower
stock market volatility. On the other hand, the New Environment Hypothesis (NEH, see
Furniture Factory has four components that share a data structure: Sketch Interface, Geometry
Analyzer, 3-D Representation, and Joint Creator. Figure 3 shows the information flow among
these components After a designer sketches the isometric view of furniture in the Sketch
Interface, Geometry Analyzer analyzes the sketch and computes faces, edges and 3-D
coordinates. These computed faces, edges, and their 3-D coordinates are stored in the data
structure. 3-D Representation creates a 3-D model using information extracted from the
designer’s isometric sketch and displays it.
The provisions for embedded derivatives in IAS 39 apply to derivatives embedded
in insurance contracts or financial instruments with discretionary participation
features, within the scope of IFRS 4. However, if the embedded derivative is itself
an insurance contract or a financial instrument with a discretionary participation
feature within the scope of IFRS 4, it need not be separated and measured in
terms of IAS 39.
Such an approach, however, is fraught with
security risks: without proper protection in place, one’s
sensitive information can be exposed to unintended par-
ties on the same system. This threat is often dealt with
by an access controlmechanism that conﬁnes each user’s
activities to her compartment. As an example, programs
running in a user’s account are typically not allowed to
touch the data in another account without the permission
of the owner of that account.
Business is beginning to understand how important a commitment
to sustainability is in its strategic positioning and long-term economic
well-being. This awareness of the issue—if not demonstrable
performance—is becoming mainstream in business thinking. It is
critical to the designer, as a trusted advisor to business on communication
and positioning issues and as a crafter of design artifacts, that the
profession also make these issues mainstream in its thinking.
Chickenpox or Shingles (Varicella Virus)--First-time exposure to this virus during pregnancy
may cause miscarriage, multiple birth defects, and severe disease in newborns. Chickenpox can be
a serious illness in adults. Most people (90% to 95% of adults) were exposed to chickenpox as
children and are immune. For women who do not know if they had chickenpox as a child, a blood
test can verify if they are immune. If they are not immune, a chickenpox vaccine is now available.
We are also concerned with the inclusion of market making activities within the ring-fence:
market making activities provide a service for companies that need to hedge risk arising from
their business activities. Furthermore, these activities provide services for governments
issuing sovereign debt and banks issuing senior debt including covered bonds issued in order
to fund lending to the real economy. Due to the difficulty of carrying out this definition, the
Liikanen Group has opted to place into the ring-fence all the market making activities.
In addition to SME policies, many countries have adopted small business legislative acts, including
such countries with economies in transition as Russia, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria.
Within the national framework, acts may specifically target the local level, as in the case of the German
Länder. Their content varies but usually includes a declaration of support for small businesses, a definition
for public policy purposes and principles on which support for the sector will be based.