German words

Xem 1-20 trên 51 kết quả German words
  • This paper proposes a description of German word order including phenomena considered as complex, such as scrambling, (partial) VP fronting and verbal pied piping. Our description relates a syntactic dependency structure directly to a topological hierarchy without resorting to movement or similar mechanisms.

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  • German word order) The framework is slightly modified to accommodate the relevant class of word order regularities. The syntactic framework presented in this paper is not hound to any particular theory of discourse processing; it enables syntax to interact with whatever formal model of pragmatics one might want to implement. A brief discussion of the framework's implication~ for computational implementation centers Upon the problem of the status of metagrammatical devices.

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  • This new edition has been fully revised and offers up-to-date coverage of all the essential vocabulary of everyday life. The dictionary contains over 100,000 words, phrases, and translations. There is special treatment of key words: frequently-used words, which are the building blocks to learning the language, are given a special layout and usage notes to help users deal with them correctly. An A-Z of cultural information is included, to help students further their understanding of the German-speaking world.

    pdf95p crius75 02-01-2013 280 179   Download

  • Freer-word-order languages such as German exhibit linguistic phenomena that present unique challenges to traditional CFG parsing. Such phenomena produce discontinuous constituents, which are not naturally modelled by projective phrase structure trees. In this paper, we examine topological field parsing, a shallow form of parsing which identifies the major sections of a sentence in relation to the clausal main verb and the subordinating heads.

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  • In this article, compound processing for translation into German in a factored statistical MT system is investigated. Compounds are handled by splitting them prior to training, and merging the parts after translation. I have explored eight merging strategies using different combinations of external knowledge sources, such as word lists, and internal sources that are carried through the translation process, such as symbols or parts-of-speech. I show that for merging to be successful, some internal knowledge source is needed.

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  • In this paper we present Morphy, an integrated tool for German morphology, part-ofspeech tagging and context-sensitive lemmatization. Its large lexicon of more than 320,000 word forms plus its ability to process German compound nouns guarantee a wide morphological coverage. Syntactic ambiguities can be resolved with a standard statistical part-of-speech tagger. By using the output of the tagger, the lemmatizer can determine the correct root even for ambiguous word forms. The complete package is freely available and can be downloaded from the World Wide Web. ...

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  • Algorithms for the alignment of words in translated texts are well established. However, only recently new approaches have been proposed to identify word translations from non-parallel or even unrelated texts. This task is more difficult, because most statistical clues useful in the processing of parallel texts cannot be applied to non-parallel texts. Whereas for parallel texts in some studies up to 99% of the word alignments have been shown to be correct, the accuracy for non-parallel texts has been around 30% up to now. ...

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  • Separable verbs are verbs with prefixes which, depending on the syntactic context, can occur as one word written together or discontinuously. They occur in languages such as German and Dutch and constitute a problem for NLP because they are lexemes whose forms cannot always be recognized by dictionary lookup on the basis of a text word. Conventional solutions take a mixed lexical and syntactic approach. In this paper, we propose the solution offered by Word Manager, consisting of string-based recognition by means of rules of types also required for periphrastic inflection and clitics. ...

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  • The current state-of-the-art in statistical machine translation (SMT) suffers from issues of sparsity and inadequate modeling power when translating into morphologically rich languages. We model both inflection and word-formation for the task of translating into German. We translate from English words to an underspecified German representation and then use linearchain CRFs to predict the fully specified German representation. We show that improved modeling of inflection and wordformation leads to improved SMT. ...

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  • We compare the impact of sentenceinternal vs. sentence-external features on word order prediction in two generation settings: starting out from a discriminative surface realisation ranking model for an LFG grammar of German, we enrich the feature set with lexical chain features from the discourse context which can be robustly detected and reflect rough grammatical correlates of notions from theoretical approaches to discourse coherence. In a more controlled setting, we develop a constituent ordering classifier that is trained on a German treebank with gold coreference annotation. ...

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  • RELATIVE CLAUSES The problems discussed are those of syntactical ambiguity and multimeaning in translating relative pronouns from German to English. The former, which is of concern for the English word order, arises from the coexistence in German of homomorphous inflections and variable word order, the latter from this combined with gender dissimilarities in the two languages.

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  • A computer program is described which assigns one or more distinct immediate constituent analyses to every German sentence, thus indicating which of all possible sentences any given sequence of words may represent, and revealing all the information implicitly or explicitly contained in each of these sentences, that can be used in the choice of their translations.

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  • We investigate how novel English-derived words (anglicisms) are used in a Germanlanguage Internet hip hop forum, and what factors contribute to their uptake. Because English has established itself as something of a global lingua franca, many languages are currently undergoing a process of introducing new loanwords borrowed from English. However, while the motivations for borrowing are well studied, including e.g.

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  • We describe the ongoing construction of a large, semantically annotated corpus resource as reliable basis for the largescale acquisition of word-semantic information, e.g. the construction of domainindependent lexica. The backbone of the annotation are semantic roles in the frame semantics paradigm. We report experiences and evaluate the annotated data from the first project stage. On this basis, we discuss the problems of vagueness and ambiguity in semantic annotation.

    pdf8p bunbo_1 17-04-2013 12 1   Download

  • This set of candidate surface strings, represented as a word lattice, is then rescored by a wordbigram language model, to produce the bestranked output sentence. FERGUS (Bangalore and Rambow, 2000), on the other hand, employs a model of syntactic structure during sentence realization. In simple terms, it adds a tree-based stochastic model to the approach taken by the Nitrogen system. This tree-based model chooses a best-ranked XTAG representation for a given dependency structure.

    pdf8p bunmoc_1 20-04-2013 12 1   Download

  • For German, most transformational lingusitic theories such as GB posit center-embedding as the underlying word order of sentences with embedded clauses: Weft ich [das Fahrrad zu reparieren] versprochen habe Because I the bike (ace) to repair promised have Because I promised to repair the bike However, far more common is a construction in which the entire subordinate clause is extraposed: Weil ich ti versprochen habe, [das Fahrrad zu reparieren]i.

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  • The Institut fHr d e u t s c h e Sprache recently has begun setting up a LExicographical DAta Base for German (LEDA). This data base is d e s i g n e d to improve efficiency in the collection, analysis, ordering and description of l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l by f a c i l i t a t i n g access to textual samples w i t h i n c o r p o r a and to word articles, within...

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  • In this paper we present a human-based evaluation of surface realisation alternatives. We examine the relative rankings of naturally occurring corpus sentences and automatically generated strings chosen by statistical models (language model, loglinear model), as well as the naturalness of the strings chosen by the log-linear model. We also investigate to what extent preceding context has an effect on choice. We show that native speakers do accept quite some variation in word order, but there are also clearly factors that make certain realisation alternatives more natural. ...

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  • English is a language of the western branch of the German language group in the Indo-European), were imported to England by the language invasion of many people in the 6th century. Transmitted throughout the English colonialism in the boom period...

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  • Grammatikübersicht Summary o grammar f A 1 . Übersicht über die Satzgliedstellung Word order Das Verb und seine Erganzungen The verb and the other mainparts of a sentence In German the verb is the central element in a sentence. í%e other main parts ofa sentence ilztroduced in

    pdf10p kemoc10 28-07-2011 180 69   Download

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