German

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  • An important contribution to the debates surrounding the evolution of the European welfare state model, this volume investigates the role that “ideational leadership” has played in the passing of structural reforms in the change-resistant German welfare state. Based on in-depth case studies of individual reforms in health care, pensions, and unemployment insurance since the early 1990s, Stiller illuminates the ways in which Germany has made the transition from its Bismarckian past to a hybrid welfare state....

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  • This volume represents the collected and edited papers of the second biennial Oxford Anglo-German law conference held at St. John’s College, Oxford, on 13–15 September 2001.

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  • Freer-word-order languages such as German exhibit linguistic phenomena that present unique challenges to traditional CFG parsing. Such phenomena produce discontinuous constituents, which are not naturally modelled by projective phrase structure trees. In this paper, we examine topological field parsing, a shallow form of parsing which identifies the major sections of a sentence in relation to the clausal main verb and the subordinating heads.

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  • In this article, compound processing for translation into German in a factored statistical MT system is investigated. Compounds are handled by splitting them prior to training, and merging the parts after translation. I have explored eight merging strategies using different combinations of external knowledge sources, such as word lists, and internal sources that are carried through the translation process, such as symbols or parts-of-speech. I show that for merging to be successful, some internal knowledge source is needed.

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  • The translation of any work is at best a difficult task, and must inevitably be prejudicial to whatever of beauty the original possesses. When the principal charm of the original lies in its elegant simplicity, as in the case of the "Deutsche Liebe," the difficulty is still further enhanced. The translator has sought to reproduce the simple German in equally simple English, even at the risk of transferring German idioms into the English text. The story speaks for itself.

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  • In this paper we present Morphy, an integrated tool for German morphology, part-ofspeech tagging and context-sensitive lemmatization. Its large lexicon of more than 320,000 word forms plus its ability to process German compound nouns guarantee a wide morphological coverage. Syntactic ambiguities can be resolved with a standard statistical part-of-speech tagger. By using the output of the tagger, the lemmatizer can determine the correct root even for ambiguous word forms. The complete package is freely available and can be downloaded from the World Wide Web. ...

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  • The following pages aim at giving a general view of the social and intellectual life of Germany from the end of the mediæval period to modern times. In the earlier portion of the book, the first half of the sixteenth century in Germany is dealt with at much greater length and in greater detail than the later period, a sketch of which forms the subject of the last two chapters. The reason for this is to be found in the fact that while the roots of the later German character and culture are to be sought for in the life of this period, it...

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  • We compare the phenomena of clausal coordinate ellipsis in Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language, and German, an Indo-European language. The rules underlying these phenomena appear to be remarkably similar. Thus, the software module ELLEIPO, which was originally developed to generate clausal coordinate ellipsis in German and Dutch, works for Estonian as well. In order to extend ELLEIPO’s coverage to Estonian, we only had to adapt the lexicon and some syntax rules unrelated to coordination.

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  • German case syncretism is often assumed to be the accidental by-product of historical development. This paper contradicts this claim and argues that the evolution of German case is driven by the need to optimize the cognitive effort and memory required for processing and interpretation. This hypothesis is supported by a novel kind of computational experiments that reconstruct and compare attested variations of the German definite article paradigm.

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  • A compositional account of the semantics of German prefix verbs in HPSG is outlined. We consider only those verbs that are formed by productive synchronic rules. Rules are fully productive if they apply to all base verbs which satisfy a common description. Prefixes can be polysemous and have separate, highly underspecified lexical entries. Adequate bases are determined via selection restrictions.

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  • In many quarters of the world, especially in certain sections of the British public, people believed that the German nation was led blindly into the World War by an unscrupulous military clique.

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  • The internal structure of the locative predicate-complement form-class in German is described within the framework of a generative grammar consisting of a phrase-structure (PS) component, a semantic (S) component, and a transformation (T) component. The S-component is interposed between the PS-component and the T-component.

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  • In this thesis proposal I present my thesis work, about pre- and postprocessing for statistical machine translation, mainly into Germanic languages. I focus my work on four areas: compounding, definite noun phrases, reordering, and error correction. Initial results are positive within all four areas, and there are promising possibilities for extending these approaches.

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  • In this paper, we present an unlexicalized parser for German which employs smoothing and suffix analysis to achieve a labelled bracket F-score of 76.2, higher than previously reported results on the NEGRA corpus. In addition to the high accuracy of the model, the use of smoothing in an unlexicalized parser allows us to better examine the interplay between smoothing and parsing results.

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  • We present an unsupervised system that exploits linguistic knowledge resources, namely English and German lexical databases and the World Wide Web, to identify English inclusions in German text. We describe experiments with this system and the corpus which was developed for this task. We report the classification results of our system and compare them to the performance of a trained machine learner in a series of in- and crossdomain experiments.

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  • Separable verbs are verbs with prefixes which, depending on the syntactic context, can occur as one word written together or discontinuously. They occur in languages such as German and Dutch and constitute a problem for NLP because they are lexemes whose forms cannot always be recognized by dictionary lookup on the basis of a text word. Conventional solutions take a mixed lexical and syntactic approach. In this paper, we propose the solution offered by Word Manager, consisting of string-based recognition by means of rules of types also required for periphrastic inflection and clitics. ...

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  • Tham khảo sách 'germany and the germans from an american point of view (1913)', khoa học xã hội, lịch sử văn hoá phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • When translating English to German, existing reordering models often cannot model the long-range reorderings needed to generate German translations with verbs in the correct position. We reorder English as a preprocessing step for English-to-German SMT. We use a sequence of hand-crafted reordering rules applied to English parse trees. The reordering rules place English verbal elements in the positions within the clause they will have in the German translation.

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  • THIS narrative offers a gentle but permanent answer to the problem presented to humanity by the German people. It seeks to go beyond the stage of indemnities, diplomatic or trade control, peace by armed preponderance. These agencies do not take into account Teuton nature, character, manner of living, beliefs. Unless the Germans are changed, the world will live at swords' points with them both in theory and in practice. Whether they are characteristically Huns or not, it should be tragically realized that something ought to be done to alter their type.

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  • RELATIVE CLAUSES The problems discussed are those of syntactical ambiguity and multimeaning in translating relative pronouns from German to English. The former, which is of concern for the English word order, arises from the coexistence in German of homomorphous inflections and variable word order, the latter from this combined with gender dissimilarities in the two languages.

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